The components of the Tourism and Travel industry
The features of tourism.
The tourism industry is very much a service industry. However, compared with most other service industries it has several differentiating features (see e.g. Laws, 2002; Flagestad & Hope, 2001; Ritchie & Ritchie, 1998; Ashworth & Goodall, 1990), deriving from complexity of destination product and intrinsic characteristics of tourism, which may have an impact on brand management competencies required in developing and maintaining successful destination brands.
The concept: The basic concept has been broadened to include various forms of business and vocational travel because their economic significance is the same.
On an analysis of the above definition, we find the following features of tourism:
Tourism is a leisure activity which involves a discretionary use of time and money and recreation is often the main purpose for participation in tourism. The temporary short-term character of tourism distinguishes it from migration, which means a long-term population movement with a view to taking up permanent residence. In tourism money earned in one’s normal domicile is spent in the places visited.
The tourism industry, like many industries, displays particularities of pricing. These arise partly from custom and practice. The pricing decisions can be affected by tourism demand, costs, the competition in the field, tourism supply, government policies on pricing, customer legislation and competition, the economy (in particular, exchange rates and interest rates), profit margins and other corporate objectives.
In common with all marketing decisions, pricing decisions also need to be made in light of the marketing environment for the particular product under consideration. The travel and tourism industry has its own features which have important effects on pricing. Taking into consideration all these elements, the paper describes the features of the travel and tourism industry which may affect pricing and offers real case studies that imply setting prices according to the particularities of the tourism activity.
Tourism is one of the biggest and fastest-growing sectors in the global economy and has significant environmental, cultural, social and economic effects, both positive and negative. Tourism can be a major tool for economic development but, if not properly planned it can have destructive effects on biodiversity and pristine environments and can result in the misuse of natural resources such as freshwater, forests and marine life. At a number of sites tourism development has resulted in serious water shortage affecting both local communities and industry, forests have been depleted and coral reefs have been damaged. The adverse impact that tourism can have on the environment both undermines the basic resource for tourism in coastal areas and heavily affects other non-tourist economic activities.
To avoid these impacts tourism needs to be planned, managed and undertaken in a way that is environmentally sustainable, socially beneficial and economically viable. Sustainable tourism development always needs to respect the environment and refer to accepted principles of sustainability. It must be planned to make balanced use of the resources of any site, thus avoiding negative effects, reducing visitor satisfaction, or adversely impacting the local society, economy and culture. Sometimes it may be difficult to quantify limits, but they are essential for sustainable tourism.
Thus, if it is to maintain the main elements on which it is based, the tourism sector needs to invest in the maintenance of the natural environment. If properly planned, tourism can become a positive force for conservation and environmental protection, and economic development.
Appropriate tourism development largely depends on the ability of governments and local authorities to play the fundamental role of elaborating and enforcing land use plans. This not only applies to the traditional tourism infrastructure, but also to the uncontrolled proliferation of secondary homes, once the main infrastructure is in place. For every hotel that is built, thousands of small houses are built, often with very limited attention to environmental impact and to encroachment into natural spaces. In many parts of the world, this applies particularly to beach and sand dune ecosystems, where many species are at risk of disappearing. In essence, there should be a change of attitude towards land-use planning.
The creation of protected areas and buffer zones should no longer be considered only as a means of mitigating impact, but also as offering increased opportunities for recreation and attracting visitors. However, land-use planning alone is not sufficient. These measures must be supported by the introduction of new technologies and more effective management practices for reducing the environmental impact of the tourism industry.
20 Reasons You Should Integrate Tourism into Your Development Agenda
Here are some of the highlights. Sustainable Economic Growth
Social Inclusiveness, Employment, and Poverty Reduction
Resource Efficiency, Environmental Protection, and Climate Change
Cultural Values, Diversity, and Heritage
Mutual Understanding, Peace and Security
Read the full evidence case on 20 Reasons Sustainable Tourism Counts for Development.
More than 50 years after the World Bank-financed its first tourism for development projects in Morocco and Tunisia the evidence case for tourism as a sustainable development model is stronger than ever. This World Tourism Day we call on colleagues, partners, and governments to explore the full potential of tourism as a development tool..
The components of the Tourism and Travel industry
Components of travel and tourism the definition of Travel. Travel is changing its location using different types of transport. People can travel by * Road * Air * Sea * Rail The definition of tourism. Tourism is the temporary short-term movement of people to destination outside the place they normally live or work. For example, the young couple travel to New York visit friends. Types of tourism. Tourism can be divided into three categories: Domestic tourism This is when people take holidays, short breaks and day trips in their own country e.g. couple from Manchester go to visit Birmingham for one week.
This is when people enter the country from their own country of origin or another country which their home is not. e.g. students from Spain comes to London visit the city. Outbound tourism. This is when people travel away from the country where they normally live. e.g. family from New quay decide to give London a miss this year a take two weeks holiday in Italy The Components of Travel and Tourism Travel and tourism it’s made up of different components which work together to provide holidays and other travel products to clients.
These are the most important components in the tourism industry
The components of travel and tourism can be broadly divided into six key areas.
A travel agent provides information to the people on various travel destinations, advises them of available holiday packages to suit their tastes and budget and chart their travel plan. He would generally sell the travel associated products like currency exchange, car rentals, insurance etc.
Tour operators offer holiday packages which comprise of
These tour operators may be the wholesale operators who operate tours only through retail travel agencies or they may be direct sell operators who market their product directly to the public.
This component consists of those who provide accommodation to the people in the form of hotels, resorts, apartments, camps, guest houses etc. The accommodation may be marketed individually or through the tour operators in the form of package. Direct marketing may require huge costs on the advertisement and sell through a tour operator guarantees the occupancy rate throughout a holiday season. These service providers also take care of the catering needs of the people b providing them with huge cafeterias, various fast food outlets in house or in the form of a Galleria.
Transport providers are those operating any major form of transport. They could be airlines, cruise lines, car rentals, and rail companies. A tourist’s choice of transport would depend on the travel budget, destination, time, purpose of the tour, and convenience to the point of destination.
5, Information & Guiding: (Ancillary services)
The tourist information and guidance providers include a number of service providers such as those offering insurance, recreational, communication, and banking services; government agencies; tour guides; industry associations; packaging agents; ticketing agents; and holiday sellers.
The principle of attraction is to establish the need for the attraction in a particular location to invite more footfall. It may be a huge theme park, a museum, a gallery, a heritage building, an educational centre etc. Many countries see the need to have one or more visitor attraction in the area to widen their appeal and attract huge potential tourist.
These bodies also making bridges between the traders and visitors (travellers).
Those organisations interrelate to produce and promote travel products and services. Also, some organisations are independent of other such as visitor attractions including local heritage Chain of Distribution show the way, product such as for example holidays are distributed from producer to customers, often via wholesalers and retailers. PRINCIPALS that is Hotel, Airlines, and other Transport companies WHOLESALERS Tour Operators RETAILERS Travel Agencies CUSTOMERS Types of Integration. Integration in the travel and tourism industry occurs when one company owns or controls more than one part of the distribution process. There are two types of integration.
Horizontal Integration is when the organisation owns two or more companies on the same level of the distribution chain. e.g. First Choice Holidays owns a number of tour operating brands like First Choice Holiday or Sovereign Vertical Integration is when the company integrate at the different levels of the distribution chain. E.g. tour operator works with an airline such as First Choice as it is a tour operator which also has an airline named First Choice Airways.
AIRLINE First Choice TOUR OPERATOR First Choice Holiday TRAVEL AGENCY First Choice Travel Shops Travel Infrastructure- travel infrastructure is the networks of the links between motorways, airports, seaports and railway stations which transport the passengers to a destination.
Focus on your mental and emotional side to gain self-improvement
Not everyone believes this but the emotional and mental aspects of a person, when combined, leads to better self-improvement.
Emotions love to dominate our actions and reactions, even though we do not want it to happen sometimes. The society often sees emotions as a sign of weakness, so people are used to putting them aside and focusing on the rational aspects more and more.
No matter how strict and logical you may be, you will always feel. One way or another, someone or something will get through you.
Positive emotions are a lifelong goal for many of us concerned about emotional health and self-improvement. What is more important; the amount of money you made during your life or the times you laughed out of sheer joy?
People tend to put their positive emotions behind their negative feelings. This is one of the biggest problems that people come across during their lives.
There is no clear way to ignore a negative experience and try to replace it with a positive one. Life just does not work that way.
For example, when you were a child, if your goldfish dies, you would be heartbroken. Your parents will probably buy you another goldfish but the sorrow is still there.
Things get even more complex when you become an adult. A fight with your spouse the night before will affect your entire day. You will go to work angry, tired, and your mind will wander. On the way home from work you will not notice the sun shining and you would not be tempted to stop at a roadside stand to pick up some fresh fruits and vegetables.
All this because that one negative thought has contaminated the way you perceive the reality around you.
At this moment you will realize finding a safe place to relax your mind will do wonders for your emotional and mental improvement.
That place is relatively easy to find. It can be an actual place or an imaginary location. The best idea is to totally lose yourself in it.
Let us say you have a problem with your mind and it just would not go away. Go bowling. Do not know how? Just give it a shot.
Get caught up in the game. Your mind will drift away from the negative thoughts that dominated your last hours or days and start processing a whole new kind of information.
A safe haven can take many forms. It can be a song, a movie, even a person or animal. The main thing is allowing yourself to get completely involved with this new activity.
You might still get flashes of the problem every now and then. Ignore it and get even more absorbed in what you are doing.
When the bowling game, the song, or the movie ends you will abruptly return to reality. You will probably want to retreat back to the safe place. Do not do it.
The safe place exists only as a helping hand, not as a solution to your life's problems, may it be small or big. It serves only as an escape route.
You will return from your safe zone with an increased energy level. You will feel better about yourself and gain more confidence. You will see that any issue can be resolved.
This is how a small escape from a harsh reality can increase your emotional and mental health. Try to do this often and you are on your way to better self-improvement.
How to Motivate Yourself Forever
Just as willpower is an essential factor in achieving success, at some point in time, discouragement and lack of motivation may hinder you from reaching your objective. And it is up to you, and you alone to devise techniques that will help you keep that drive within afire.
It is helpful to have visual goals. whatsoever that is you are working towards, make it visual. It may be something material like a car, or a vacation you have been looking forward to for the longest time.
Take or cut out a picture of it and post it at a conspicuous place at work or at home where you can see it often. So that when you feel discouraged, this will remind you of your goal and will help you keep your spotlight.
Make a contract with oneself. According to motivational researches, people who write down to-do-lists are far more triumphant in achieving their intended goals than those people who just keep mental lists instead.
Putting something in writing somehow makes it more powerful psychologically speaking. This may also be the basis why most cultures have such high regard in honouring contracts. In the contract, you may also include a certain reward that you will give yourself once you have accomplished the task.
After all, everyone likes to be rewarded for completing a good job. Even a simple pat on the back, “good job”, or “thank you” may do the trick to give the person the additional push to carry on, but unfortunately, these may not always be readily available. Considering that these are also essential in keeping oneself motivated, you must learn to find a way to get that encouragement on your own through pleasing yourself.
Abusive people lower their self-esteem and bring them down. Get these negative people out of your life. Surround yourself with positive people. Imitate their example. Smile amply and think happy thoughts.
These will give you a brighter outlook and lets you see a clearer picture of what you really want and a fresh mind to know what steps to take to get there. Rather than wait for things to happen, try to be proactive and MAKE THINGS HAPPEN. Inactivity idles the brain and stagnates your potential to reach your goals.
Read inspirational books and literature. These will help you improve your attitude and heal your mind. A book of success stories also proves to be encouraging. You will not only learn from others' experiences and derive confidence boosting insights from them but the story will be instrumental in motivating you to go for your goal and move ahead with your plans. If this still seems to falter, get training or education.
Oftentimes, not knowing how or where to start is frustrating. Knowledge is power. Having a clear understanding of how and where to start is empowering and it will provide the extra drive needed to hit the mark you are aiming at and follow it through.
Having enumerated all these tips and tricks to attain self-motivation, but still, you seem to feel lacking that much-needed drive, there is one last thing that you must try.
Whatever it is that you have been meaning to do, or wanting to achieve, JUST DO IT! Keep on aiming high and go for it! Actually getting your hands dirty best solves the problem of motivation. By “forcing” yourself to just do it, your momentum will pick up gradually as you go along and before you know it you have finished the task or have finally achieved your goal. Divide and conquer is the key.
Break down the apparently unattainable activity to small doable steps. Not only does it become less overwhelming, but seeing the "in the meantime" results will further your confidence that it can indeed be done.
Lack of motivation happens to us all, but if you do not encourage yourself to accept opportunities and be challenged, no one else will. It is most important to keep your eye on the goal, find ways to keep going, and in no time, you shall reap its benefits.
And if at the beginning you were just doing it for the material reward, you will also learn to realize that the fulfilment, satisfaction and self-achievement you derive from reaching your goal is a much enjoyable high that will keep the drive within constantly burning.
Women workshops – what you want to see what’s inside and how it works
Self-esteem is a core identity issue, essential to personal validation and our ability to experience joy.
Once achieved, it comes from the inside out. But it is assaulted or stunted from the outside in. A woman with low self-esteem does not feel good about herself because she has absorbed negative messages about women from the culture and/or relationships.
The reign of youth, beauty and thinness in our society dooms every woman to eventual failure. Women's magazines, starting with the teenage market, program them to focus all their efforts on their appearance.
Many girls learn, by age 12, to drop formerly enjoyable activities in favour of the beauty treadmill leading to nowhere. They become fanatical about diets. They munch, like rabbits, on leaves without salad dressing, jog in ice storms, and swear they love it! Ads abound for cosmetic surgery, enticing us to "repair" our ageing bodies as if the natural process of ageing were an accident or a disease. Yet with all this effort, they still never feel like they are good enough.
A workshop a set of activities designed to promote learning, discussion and feedback about a topic or event, you have achieved this with the traditional get-together workshop, but online, all you need to do it logon to find other peoples views and suggestions about their life-changing ways into a better self.
Get better every day
Plan to do one thing that will help you improve physically, intellectually, emotionally, even spiritually. Making just one change for the better will boost your attitude from the inside out. You can actually choose what you want to change in this category first. Things you do most are the ones you need to focus on. A simple task won't takes that long.
Little things add up
It's amazing, really. The seemingly meaningless things you do for yourself may not have immediate results, but after just a short period of time, they'll have you looking and feeling better. So add those bubbles to your bath, make sure you eat your vegetables, get enough sleep, think of doing something nice when you have nothing to do, and the results will be worth it.
Mirrors don’t lie
Catty acquaintances can. Well-meaning friends might out of kindness or fear of hurting the friendship, but if you've got spinach in your teeth, your mirror will point it out. These things can be bothersome when you thought you were in your best but end up like this, so keep in mind about how to look best every time and enjoy its benefits.
If you just can't get rid of that cowlick in your hair, that pimple on your nose, or those extra three pounds from yesterday's buffet, just throw some gel in your hair, conceal that pimple the best you can, and wear something that's not too clingy.
To get that attitude going the right way, you need to appreciate your face and body for what it is. It may be unrealistic to tell you to love it, but you certainly shouldn't hate it. You definitely need to value what life has thrown you. That's easier said than done in this society of model adulation and unrealistic standards.
If you take a look at any success story and grasp the one element of similarity between them, you'll notice that virtually every self-made, successful person has this one super-important object of success in their mind- a burning desire to succeed. What counts is your frame of mind. Age, location, ethnic origin, gender, or any other individuality have absolutely no part in your attitude to become what you desire.
The essential keys to self-improvement and motivation
What are the three keys to self-improvement and motivation?
Inspiration is critical to staying motivated and improving oneself. If you are not interested in your business, your motivation level will never be high and you will not be able to sustain interest for very long.
Take an honest look at your inspiration level. Are you excited about going to work or is it an obligation? You would be surprised at the number of people who choose a business that looks good on paper, but in reality, does not interest them in the least.
These individuals will grow weary and uninterested pretty quickly because they have no inspiration or passion to sustain them during the difficult times they will encounter as a small business owner.
If you do not like your work, then think about how you can re-focus your small business to better match your needs. Or consider making a change entirely. Without inspiration, there will not be motivated to even try self-improvement.
2. SETTING GOALS.
Short and long-term goal setting is vital for any business owner. If you do not set goals, you would have no definite purpose on which path of self-improvement to take.
How could you possibly be motivated if you were unsure about the direction of your company?
Take the time to put your goals in writing. A business plan may sound daunting, but it is really nothing more than goals, strategies, implementation and a budget. Write your own business plan and update it at least annually.
Include “mini-goals” that can be accomplished in a matter of hours, days or weeks as well as the more ambitious “grand-goals” that may take years to complete. Refer to this plan throughout the year.
But can a business plan really help motivate you? Of course. Written goals will make you feel more professional and certainly more connected to your business. It will also free you from having to reinvent your business goals every single day.
Another key factor in getting and staying motivated is networking with other small business owners. No one person knows all the knowledge.
However, when a number of people begin working together, the challenges will just be there waiting to be conquered.
In fact, the isolation of working alone is of one of the most difficult parts of being an entrepreneur. You can never be on your way to self-improvement without the help of others. Mutual support is motivating.
Make it easier on yourself by connecting with others either in your community or online. Even when businesses are not related, you will often find common ground and ways to work together.
Many successful entrepreneurs report that finding the right networking group was a turning point in the growth of the business. Working together, a networking group can help its members generate more qualified sales leads and solve problems faster and more efficiently.
Sharing ideas, expertise and experience is also an invaluable aspect of motivation and self-improvement.
Your own personal team of business owners will help re-energize you when the burdens of running your own business seem too much.
With your networking team to rely on, you can accomplish more in less time and probably have more fun in the process. You will feel motivated to accomplish self-improvement when you know you are not alone.
Helping your consumers to gain more profits
Consumers are individuals or households that consume goods and services generated within the economy. Since this includes just about everyone, the term is a political term as much as an economic term when it is used in everyday speech.
Typically when business people and economists talk of consumers they are talking about the person as consumer, an aggregated commodity item with little individuality other than that expressed in the buy not buy decision.
However, there is a trend in marketing to individualize the concept. Instead of generating broad demographic profile and psychographic profiles of market segments, marketers are engaging in personalized marketing, permission marketing, and mass customization.
A consumer is assumed to have a budget which can be spent on a range of goods and services available on the market. Under the assumption of rationality, the budget allocation is chosen according to the preference of the consumer, i.e. to maximize his or her utility function.
In 'time-series' models of consumer behaviour, the consumer may also invest a proportion of their budget in order to gain a greater budget in future periods. This investment choice may include either fixed-rate interest or risk-bearing securities.
In the context of mental health, the consumer is also a term applied to describe a person living with mental illness.
Literally, it is not really what is states. They are the people seeking for help in their own profile of their mentality. You can let them gain their life back on track and achieve your goal at the same time.
Problems may also arise when dealing with your possible prospects.
Many patients are frustrated because, despite their best intentions, they seem unable to adhere to an exercise or "diet" program. Actually, there are several proven strategies that can be used to help us be successful in our efforts to improve an aspect of our lifestyle.
First, make a plan and make sure it fits their lifestyle. For example, if you're planning on beginning an exercise program, think ahead about how you're going to carve out the time in their already busy life. In this respect, anything you can do to make the exercise program a regular, daily part of your routine will be helpful.
It's often a good idea to ask those around you to help you in your endeavours. Anything you can do to help assure the support of your family, friends and co-workers will increase the odds of success.
Remember that most of the changes you make, whether changing what you prefer to eat, or changing your schedule to include exercise, will affect those around you. One of the best examples of this is the difficulty that smokers have trying to quit when those around them are smoking.
If you strictly adhere to a "proven" program that has succeeded for others, however and fail to produce the results you want, you may become discouraged or filled with self-doubt. There are many reasons to explain why self-help techniques fail, and many steps to take to feel good about yourself regardless of the result.
Like every other field, the "experts" in self-help disagree on just about everything.
Always remember this: no matter how smart or "successful" someone is, how much "proof" you're given, how much you trust or respect someone, or how logical something seems, it's just an opinion, just what worked for someone else, just a possible pathway to success.
Self-improvement advice is free of charge.
If only self-improvement advice were free and scattered around everywhere, then there will be no problem regarding life, happiness and success. But then again, this is life. And it does not work that way.
What would you do if you are trapped in an environment that you do not want to be in? What if you are sick and tired of your job?
What can we do to solve this dilemma?
It is possible to take inspired and motivated action to survive your present situation and live the life you always dreamed of.
It is not that easy though. You will have to come out of your comfort zones to discover potentials and opportunities waiting for you. You have to conquer your fear and take calculated risks. You have to stay focused and persevere despite the difficulties you will encounter.
Success does not come easy. It takes heart, passion and time. Experience is also a factor. The learning you get everybody becomes your foundation. These are the things we do not need to pay for.
You have to work harder, dig deeper, and sacrifice more to attain your ambitions. But no, you do not have to hate the world and feel bad when you encounter a difficult situation. Just remember the Law of Attraction. If you hate the world, the world will hate you back.
What can you do? Below is some free advice to help you when facing difficult situations in life. They will also serve as your guide to improve yourself.
1. Learn to love your current situation. See all the positive sides of life. Be enthusiastic. Love your boss, your coworkers, your family, your friends, and even strangers that you meet on the streets.
It may not be easy, but nothing is impossible with strong will power. Just do not fall in love so much that you totally forget about your dreams. Love, but try to hold on to reality.
2. Balance is the key. Dream and take some positive action to move you toward your goals. Take it one step at a time.
While you are slowly starting on the long journey to success, be patient and be as enthusiastic as possible. Do not hurry up too much that you totally forget how to enjoy life. Appreciate the beautiful things you will encounter on the journey.
One day, you will finally attain what you have always longed for. But when that day comes, do not look down on those who belittled you. Forgive and forget.
3. Stay humble. Do not criticize others when you see that you are becoming more successful than they are. Try to help them. Inject your positive aura into their personalities. When you give, you will yield back equal or greater rewards.
4. Are you ready to begin the journey? Start it with the courage and desire to improve your life.
Survive and go through it with persistence, enthusiasm, and positive thinking. Finish it with a resounding bang of accomplishment and with the desire to help others succeed as well.
There are many other self-improvement advice that will get as you get on with your daily life. Take note that you are not alone. There are others in much more difficult situations. That is why is there will be a shortage of free advice about self-improvement you can get from other people who are only too happy to help.
(all information only for Guide purpose, T&C apply, check your local regional credit office for up to date information and related issues(the publisher/writer is not responsible for any outcome, contact your certified, accountant or lawyers if need update, information, ).)
The importance of transportation to tourism development
the importance of transportation to tourism development.
Transportation has been an integral part of the tourism industry; transportation links tourists with various tourist attractions. There is a general agreement that tourism expands more when there are better transportation systems. In many parts of the world, tourism had been underperforming compared to the natural heritage the country is endowed with. One of the things mentioned as the reason for underperformance is poor transportation systems.
Transportation needs for tourism promotion and tourism development among others, to be the maintenance of the existing roads, construction of more roads/rail track/sea and air transportation, and construction of local airports and enhancement of local flight operations. And established that the level of security and safety in transportation systems is not bad though transportation costs are considered high by tourists.
Tourism development could be even bigger if more could be done in various elements of transportation systems. It is important for all its stakeholders to take part to develop tourism in their regions. (The government, and other stakeholders of tourism).
The tourism sector is one of the main important sectors of the economy. Many countries take advantage of covering the budget deficit with the help of profits coming from tourism. That is why tourism sometimes is called a factory without a chimney. But tourism has its own unique features that differentiate this sector from the others.
Like in the other service industries, in tourism the customers, that is, the tourists come to the destination where the tourism services are provided. As a matter of fact it is difficult to think of tourism sector without transportation. Transportation is the main mean to carry passengers, that is, the tourists to the actual site where tourism services are performed.
The development of transportation, transportation vehicles, infrastructure and using new technologies in this sector speed up the development of tourism. If we pay attention to the statistics of the World Tourism Organization, we may see that the tourism dynamics have changed and increased rapidly between 2005 and 2015. In 2010 international tourist arrivals rose to 940 million. This, in turn, brought the economies $980 billion. This trend can be explained with different factors. But the main important factor here is the rapid development of the transportation sector and application of technological innovations which enable the tourists to reach many destinations of the world.
Whether transportation plays important role in enriching the travel experience of a tourist depends on the mode of transportation and the frequency of use. Transportation can turn into a separate tourist attraction element; cruising, Orient Express trains, boat trips along the river and etc. are the best examples to tourist attractions.
The effective factors in choosing the transportation mode in tourism are given below (Westlake and Robbins 2005, 463):
• Time limit
• Geographical position
An increase in traffic due to world tourism growth puts pressure on transportation facilities, and this can have adverse effects.
Those negative effects are as follows (Goeldner and Ritchie 2012, 96).
• Congestion – means delays which lead to waste of time and energy. Serious congestions may have a negative effect on transportation modes, especially on airports and roads during peak times.
• Safety and security – making sure that the transportation mode is safe and secure is a basic and important requirement for tourism.
• Environment – and increase in traffic may have a disastrous effect on the environment if that area does not have the carrying capacity for additional tourists.
• Seasonality – seasonal patterns of travel demand create overcrowding at certain times. Adversely low occupancies and load factors will occur at other periods.
Air Transportation One of the most important transportation modes in tourism is air travel. Air travel has made significant changes in people’s minds concerning time and distance. In order to meet the demand which increases every day, the airline companies spend billions of dollars and apply new technological innovations. Having a matchless role in long distances the air travel industry develops very rapidly.
The world’s airline industry numbers 1,629 airlines, 27,271 aircraft, 3,733 airports, 29.6 million scheduled departures a year, and carries 2.7 billion of passengers a year. The major aircraft making companies share the market will be Airbus and Boeing.
Automobile Transportation In short distances automobile transportation comes forward in regard to other modes of transportation. Automobile transportation makes it easy to see the local culture and nations. It presents great flexibility in contrast to other modes of transportation (Oter, 2007).
The importance of this mode in tourism is also very important. When compared with the prices in air transportation, this mode of transportation is frequently used by tourists because of low prices. But the main factor affecting this choice is time and distance
Railway Transportation The other mode that affects tourism is railway transportation. This type of transportation is considered the oldest one. In the 19th century, the railways were frequently used. Currently, in many countries the railways are used for transportation of loads. The reason for this is the tourist choice of air or automobile transportation. But there exist such railroads that have been included in touristic packages. For example, we can give Orient Express railways. But nowadays the application of technology and technological innovation gave birth to fast trains which compete with air and automobile transportation modes.
Sea Transportation Here we may include cruise travel, boat travel, yachting, ferry travel and etc. Cruise travel has a special place in tourism. In table 3 we can see the world and North America’s growing trend for cruise travel. From the table, we can infer that cruise travel has been much more developed in North America. The cruise ships named as sailing hotels provide tourists with indispensable travel opportunity. While travelling by a cruise ship, the tourists get the opportunity to see several countries at a time.
This type of transportation is one the most expensive one because the price for a cruise ship exceeds $100 million. More than thousands of employees work in a cruise ship at a time, may see that in cruise travel from North/south Americans to Asia, Europe and Middle East companies gained great successes.
All the stated issues prove the importance of transportation in tourism. As mentioned above the tourist’s travel experience starts and ends with transportation. In this sense, if the countries want to gain sustainable development of the tourism sector, they must pay attention to the transportation sector, reduce monopoly in this sector; provide sound competition opportunities for the companies.
To sum up, in order to develop and increase the role of transportation in tourism the countries should pay attention to the following points:
• The transportation modes specific to the regions must be developed
• The transportation costs must always be kept competitive
• The passengers must be attracted to sea and railway modes of transportation
• New embarkation ports must be established in order to develop cruise travel
• New fast train lines must be established and new fast trains must be bought and foreign experience must be applied
• The distance from stations must be kept less
• New coaches must be brought to the country
• New technologically advanced aircraft must be put into airlines
• The personnel must be trained
• The governments should allocate financial support for the development of transportation
What have you got to lose by reading one more self-improvement article?
There are a variety of self-improvement articles available nowadays. You may be thinking that this is one of those, obviously.
What have you got to lose by reading one more self-improvement article?
When you came to the 40-year stage in your life, you will suddenly realize many things. You get to ask yourself questions. How will it be when I get to the end of my life? How do I feel about the life I lived?
Then someone gave you some self-improvement articles while telling you that it is not yet too late. Does that mean anything to you?
You bet it does. The feeling of anxiety that will come next is just normal. Then you will feel confused because life had felt so good. You were happy, had a successful marriage, two wonderful kids, and a job you reasonably enjoyed. What was my problem?
It was your class ceiling. The “practical” and fear-based side that had convinced you all along that your passion and dreams had died.
Here are the top ten shifts in perspective that can help you move your life to the next level. This self-improvement article will assist you in breaking through your own glass ceiling to create the life you really want.
1. Give yourself permission to dream. You probably had no problem dreaming as a kid. What happened to your ability to imagine and dream about what you want and who you want to be? When was the last time you caught yourself daydreaming and appreciated it?
2. Stop looking outside yourself for happiness. Look inside. Increase your self-awareness. Get curious about who you are at the core. Cultivate and nurture a relationship with yourself.
3. Cover the basics. Take the time to address your personal needs. How can you focus on thriving in your life if you are in survival mode? Set up that meeting with a financial advisor, get your space organized, clean up the details that are wasting your energy.
4. Embrace your past and move on. The shift from “why it happened” to what I want to do about it now. Asking “why” is not a very empowering question. Asking what or how I want to proceed can be much more powerful and produce forward movement.
5. Remember that you are not alone. It is easy to feel overwhelmed with life. Seek support. Read more self-improvement articles. They might help you figure about some things that are puzzling you.
6. Remember gratitude. Count your blessings. What is working right in your life? Make a list. Set aside a bit of time everyday to acknowledge what or who you are grateful for. The more you practice gratitude, the more you attract into your life things to be grateful for.
7. Court your passion. You still have your passions though it has been a while since you may have felt it flow. When are you the most alive and joyful in your life? Who do you most admire and what do they inspire in you?
8. Take action and take a risk. All the inspiration in the world is not enough to make you move your life to the next level. It takes inspired action to do that.
9. Keep breathing. You probably forget to take deep full breaths. We have all learned to constrict our breathing in response to stress. According to many self-improvement articles, we not only need oxygen to stay alive, but we also need oxygen to give us energy and keep us healthy. Right now take 5 deep, full breaths.
10. Have fun. Call a friend, take a bubble bath, take yourself to an art museum or schedule a whole day out in nature. Put on some great music and dance till you drop.
And you thought this was just one of those self-improvement articles.
How to maintain your self improvement course
Once you have decided on a self improvement course, you will face moments along your journey where it seems that you are not making progress toward your goal. It is but natural.
Staying in the course when the results do not seem to be coming can be challenging. But then, you must not give up when you are pursuing a dream.
Stay on your self improvement course. Do not jump overboard. If you believe in your dream and is willing to see it through, you will surely enjoy the sweet reward of success when you arrive at your destination.
Below are four tips for staying the self improvement course.
1. Stay positive.
Your mental attitude toward your situation is very important. If you think possibilities, you will be better able to focus on the opportunities that are present in setbacks or delays.
Try to become your own dictator when you surrender your will to negative thoughts. Keep a positive attitude. You know that you have what it takes to succeed.
Tell yourself to think thoughts that will lift your spirit and renew that desire to succeed.
2. Pull versus Push.
It is not possible to push a rope. Neither can you make any progress by pushing and forcing it to move to your liking.
Experts will tell you that you need to make yourself "attractive" so that you can effortlessly draw to yourself what you want in life.
This will also move you away from seducing or pushing in order to produce the outcome that you desire.
What have you been attracting to your life? Are you the one doing the pushing or the pulling?
3. Be persistent.
Continue on taking action daily toward your dreams and goals. Patience and persistence are the crowning qualities of self-confident champions.
Think of the gardener who plants a seed and then waits for it to sprout and grow. He waters and nourishes the seed even when he does not see immediate results, having faith that the seed will develop into a beautiful plant.
Like the gardener, do not think of what you see and what is going on today. Look ahead in the future and what your actions now will result to.
What can you do today to achieve your future plans?
4. Have a success partner.
Having a success partner to encourage and support you especially when you are down or frustrated can make the difference in achieving a goal.
Sometimes our vision is blurred by distraction or discouragement. Having a supportive partner who wants big things for you and believes in you can help you stay the self improvement course.
You can do it on your own, but you do not have to do it alone. You have a choice.
Why not have a success partner who will stick with you not only through the good times but also through the bad times?
Elbert Hubbard "Know what you want to do, hold the thought firmly, and do every day what should be done, and every sunset will see you that much nearer to your goal."
Nobody told you that the self improvement course you have chosen to trek is easy. But with enough willpower and the perseverance to go on, you will finally reach that long awaited destination which is success.
Self-improvement statistics guide in decision-making.
Statistics show that about 75% of the people working today are unhappy with their current jobs. One reason is that their talents are wasted because it is not applicable to their current jobs.
That’s just one problem. You might have unreasonable demands placed upon you. You have to work really long hours to get anywhere. The paths to promotion may be blocked. You can’t get to where you want to be because of the view that people have of you, your experience, or your performance in the job.
Maybe a little self-improvement will help you out with that problem. You should know how to appreciate your job if you want to succeed in life.
If you are always late for your job, maybe it will become the reason for your termination. Why don’t you try to wake up early or if you’re always experiencing traffic, try to find another route? Self-improvement of your habits will help you succeed.
There might be criticism levelled against you that isn’t just. There could be too much politics or backstabbing, you have to grease the right palms to get ahead. The job may just not be what you expected. You were promised one thing, but it turned into something else.
One thing that you should do about backstabbing is always retained your temper at the right level. Don’t try to argue with your officemates of it will be another reason for firing you.
You have to get to the root of what is causing your unhappiness about where you are and what you’re currently doing. The easiest way is The Five Whys. Ask, “Why?” five times.
“Oh, I’m not happy.” Well, why? “Because I got passed for a promotion.” Why was that? “Because they didn’t value the project I was working on.” Why not? “Because management changed and they changed the objectives.” Well, why was that? You really sort of drill down to the root cause and find out what the problem really is.
Once you decide that you need a change - that's where the real fun begins. How to go about finding a new job or change careers completely.
There’s another way of looking at, the Top Ten Signs That You Need a New Job. It’s a bit like a Letterman Top Ten. They’re a bit tongue-in-cheek, but there’s a bit of truth in all of them.
10: You’re outgo exceeds your income. You just need more money.
9: The most rewarding thing you did this week was sharpened all 12 of your pencils to the same length.
8: You’re reluctant to be a Career Day speaker at your kid’s fourth-grade class.
7: Everyone in your workgroup got a raise except you.
5: You were late for work three times this week, but you don’t care.
4: There’s a meeting at 3:00 to talk about the upcoming reorganization, but you’re not invited.
3: Your boss keeps forgetting your name.
2: You constantly daydream about being a forest ranger.
1: Your company was recently acquired and you spent two weeks worry that you’d be laid off. After that, you worried that you wouldn’t be.
Remember, finding a new job nowadays is really hard. So, before you decided to look for another job, always resolve your problems with your current job. Self-improvement will really help you in that.
HOW TO LEGALLY ERASE BAD CREDIT INTRODUCTION
It is the purpose of this report to teach you how to obtain a copy of your Consumer credit report and to remove such things as judgments, late payments, liens, or anything that is untrue or unfair from such reports, thereby improving your consumer credit rating.
WHAT IS CREDIT?
The average American has a better understanding of General Motors than he or she does about their credit rating. Credit is used every day by millions of Americans, yet most do not have the faintest idea of how our credit system really works. Most people only know that they can pull out a plastic credit card and buy something that they don't have the cash to pay for.
The dictionary defines credit as financial trustworthiness. The time is given for payment for goods SOLD ON TRUST!
Actually, the credit system we now use is as old as the business world itself. The trend of today that we see advertised everywhere is: "BUY NOW AND PAY LATER." It is this philosophy that has caused millions of Americans to live from payday to payday, or from payment to payment!
Credit has been extended whenever goods are sold, or where services have been rendered and immediate payment of cash has NOT been made. The principle of credit is the same, whether the corner grocery store owner lets a patron "put it on the tab" until payday or an executive takes a $5,000 cash advance from his American Express(TM) GOLD CARD!
What do you think would happen to the grocery store customer if when payday came around, he DID NOT pay his bill as promised? Well, the grocer might give him more time, but chances are the grocer would no longer extend credit to such a customer. He would no longer be allowed to purchase his groceries "ON CREDIT!"
The same situation is true for the executive if he fails to pay his obligation for the $5,000 cash advance. His credit rating would be damaged, and that would make it very difficult for him to obtain a new credit card from American Express(TM) if he did not first clear up the debt that he owed.
With these examples in mind, if the grocer was stuck with a large unpaid bill, he would go around the neighbourhood and tell all the other merchants that Mr X "burned" him and is NOT good credit risk. From that point on, none of the other merchants in town will give Mr X any credit!
American Express(TM) would be faced with the very same problem. How would they inform other corporations that Mr Executive is poor credit risk? And how would American Express(TM) be able to obtain information on other clients who are applying for them for the credit for the first time?
The following pages will explain in more detail how credit is established and how you can investigate and improve your PERSONAL CREDIT REPORT. Be sure to read each sentence CAREFULLY as your credit is your FUTURE Buying POWER. More important, your credit is your name!
Before you go on reading this report ask yourself one good question. How much is it worth to you to have GOOD CREDIT? The answer is simple. Good credit in our society is virtual ''PRICELESS !" If your credit is not good, you will be severely handicapped in almost any financial endeavour you wish to accomplish. Because of these facts, the very small price which you paid for this financial report and credit guide is going to prove to be one of the best investments you've ever made!
Throughout this material, we will show you a simple and legal way to develop a AAA credit reputation no matter what your past credit shows this very moment. Regardless of your present credit rating, whether it reflects no credit, slow credit, or simply bad credit, or EVEN if you filed bankruptcy... YOU CAN START AGAIN! You can be one of the more fortunate individuals in the United States who holds GOOD CREDIT! You need it! You deserve it! And NOW you can have it!
HOW CREDIT REPORTING AGENCIES WORK
As credit increased throughout the country, there arose a great need to issue reports concerning those who are NOT a good credit risk as well as those who are CREDIT WORTHY! Because of this great need, credit reporting agencies were formed several years ago. These agencies, known as credit bureaus, receive information about consumers from banks, loan companies, credit card companies, department stores, as well as from other credit and lending sources. Credit bureaus earn their profits by giving a computer printout showing a financial and credit profile of any individual (such as you or I). These reports are requested by a lender or a credit-issuing firm from which you have requested credit.
Lenders will base their acceptance or rejection of your application for credit based on the information about you in your personal credit report. If your credit report shows that you have been reliable in the past, then in most cases credit will be granted. What if your report shows that you have NOT been reliable in the past? Perhaps you have been like others in this country who have encountered circumstances beyond your control which made it IMPOSSIBLE for you to meet your credit obligations. What if your credit report shows that you defaulted on a particular account or were constantly LATE making payments? This, of course, can be most embarrassing, and usually leads to CREDIT DENIAL!
There are over 2,500 credit reporting agencies in the United States. These agencies sell information about you to BANKS, DEPARTMENT STORES, CREDIT CARD COMPANIES, LOAN COMPANIES, etc.
These credit bureaus keep on file information concerning you and your credit, but they do not make any final judgements as to your creditworthiness. The decision is up to the lender which you have dealt with to decide and report to the credit bureau.
When you receive a copy of your credit profile, you may find some of the following information in your report. Your occupation, place of employment, income status, residence record, marital history, court and arrest records, and most important, details on payments of your past and present bills and loans.
You have the ABSOLUTE RIGHT to know what is in your consumer credit report! Because it is YOUR personal credit file, you should want to know what information the credit bureau is giving out concerning your good name and your credit!
Most people have thought, and still think, that if they have an unfavourable credit report or history that there is NO WAY to change it, and if they want to obtain NEW CREDIT that it's impossible! DON'T BELIEVE IT! You can change your credit report for the better. You can change and correct any and all OUTDATED, or INCORRECT INFORMATION that YOU choose! Remember, it's up to you! No one will do it for you! The first step in correcting information on your report is to obtain a copy of your personal credit profile.
HOW TO OBTAIN A COPY OF YOUR PERSONAL CREDIT REPORT
You have already learned how this credit information has been gathered, rated and placed on file for credit reporting. You can obtain a copy of this report just like a regular consumer would - after all, it's your report.
There are many different credit reporting agencies in business today, and there is one in every community. First, this discussion will be limited for simplification, to one of the largest NATIONAL companies, TRW, INC. Second, the discussion will include limited information concerning contacting the LOCAL credit reporting agency in YOUR area.
To evaluate your personal credit profile, you must obtain a copy of it. You may obtain a copy of your personal credit report by writing to TRW, INC., Post Office Box 271, Parsippany, New Jersey 07054. Include the following information with your request:
You may wish to call your LOCAL credit bureau as well. Look in your local yellow pages under Credit Reporting Agencies. Call up to find out mailing addresses and fees to obtain your report.
By the way, if you have been refused credit within the past 30 days and one of the reasons for the rejection was an "unfavourable" credit report, you have certain rights under the law.
You first have the right to know which credit reporting agency was used to obtain the report. You also have the right to CONTACT the agency and find out exactly what criteria on your report has caused the rejection You also have the right to obtain this information FREE OF CHARGE if you have been denied credit within THE PAST 30 DAYS!
Because with almost every important financial move that you make a credit report is involved, it is very important that you be concerned with what your credit report says regarding YOU AND YOUR CREDIT!
HOW TO CORRECT ERRORS IN YOUR PERSONAL REPORT
After you have received your personal reports, determine the status of your credit file. You should attempt to remove ALL unfavourable information using the methods outlined herein.
Not all of your credit history is contained in either of the two firm's files. Some information may be duplicated, or not included in the other file. Your name and Social Security number are used for identification. Current and previous addresses, spouse's name, and date of birth are used for further identification. The credit information includes the merchants' names, the subscriber number, credit account number, date opened, date closed, highest credit limit, highest amount of credit used, and repayment history. The last item is encoded into numbers, with a series of ones indicating perfect repayment.
After you have received your personal reports, determine the status of your credit file. You should attempt to remove ALL unfavourable information using the methods outlined herein.
The following descriptions are used to indicate payment history:
When you receive your report examine it VERY CAREFULLY. Make certain that all information is current and accurate. If you find any error (for example, a loan that you have PAID OFF is still listed as outstanding), you can take immediate action to correct the error. You must write out EXACTLY what the mistake is and explain the way that the information SHOULD be listed. For example, "Loan XYZ is NOT outstanding. It was paid in full on 10/31/8l." Send photocopies along with all pertinent information to substantiate your claim.
If you receive a computer printout of your credit file, there should be a space (Usually on the right-hand side of the report) in which you may PROTEST any item in your report that you feel is INCORRECT. After you have done this, make a photocopy, sending one copy back to the bureau by "CERTIFIED MAIL." When the credit bureau receives your report and the information in question, they are required to investigate and ADVISE YOU of the results of their investigation. There is NO CHARGE for this investigation! YOU HAVE CREDIT RIGHTS! Due to the Fair Credit Reporting Act passed in 1971!
Anytime that you are denied credit, you now have the right to know why you were turned down! If, for instance, you are turned down for a charge account at a store, you will receive a statement from the store stating that you were denied credit and their reason for the denial. If their reason has anything to do with the fact that the store used a credit reporting agency, they must provide you with the name and address of the agency that supplied them with the report. If this should happen to you, you should make an appointment within 30 days to visit the credit agency, so that you can review your report and find out what information in it is causing you to be DENIED CREDIT. I suggest that you always VISIT the credit bureau. Men should always wear a tie and jacket, and women should dress conservatively as well. It is very important to look professional and businesslike. It is also good to bring a friend along so that they can be witness whatever is said.
Do not let the representative of the credit bureau confuse, or upset you in any way. If there is ANYTHING that you do not understand, ask to have it explained again.
If there is any information in that report that is not true, or if you want to dispute any information on it, don't be afraid to do so. If the agency is wrong on any item on your credit report or file, DEMAND a correction. By law, the company MUST investigate... many bureaus will even try to make the correction "on the spot?!"
If for some reason you cannot PROVE that the item is in error or if you are having a disagreement with a certain creditor, you have the RIGHT to tell your side of the story in 100 words or less! This will be ADDED to your report. Often, creditors who see that you have taken the time and effort to dispute an item in your credit file will NOT include it in creditworthiness. This can be VERY HELPFUL to you.
Many bureau representatives will even help you word your statement. Be sure to use this rule to your ADVANTAGE!
After making any corrections on your report, you have the RIGHT to DEMAND that the credit bureau send corrected copies of your report to ALL CREDITORS who have received the incorrect reports for the LAST 6 MONTHS!
PLEASE NOTE: The credit bureaus WILL NOT do this automatically! - ONLY WHEN ASKED! - So make sure it gets done PRONTO!
If, when looking over your report, you notice that it is missing a few POSITIVE items that you recall, you may want to invest some money to upgrade your report. Some credit bureaus will call creditors you name as FAVORABLE to you. If the information that you give turns out to be TRUE, the item will be ADDED to your report. There are small fees of $2 to $5 per item, but this small fee could be well worth it to you.
HOW TO ERASE "BAD CREDIT" FROM YOUR CREDIT REPORT
Past credit experience which shows delinquent payments, lawsuits, collection and bankruptcy is most definitely UNFAVORABLE on your credit report. Even with several other open accounts in good standing, the unfavourable information can be a cause of credit DENIAL when applying for new credit.
Incorrect and unverifiable information can be removed legally with the assistance of the credit reporting agency on whose files the unfavourable information appears. To do this you must contact the respective agency and tell them that you wish to dispute the particular information that you feel is injurious to your credit history. Legally, they must write for confirmation of the information to the source that is reporting it. If NO CONFIRMATION is received by the agency within 14 days... the information in question MUST BE DELETED from your file! - and an updated credit report will be mailed to you for verification!
Utilizing this method will eliminate most of the unfavourable information on your credit file, particularly that which is more than one year old, or if the disputed amount is under $500. Any remaining information after the first attempt can usually be removed by subsequent attempts, at one-month intervals. Remember, keep on trying over and over again - PERSISTENCE
DOES PAY OFF!
If there is any unfavourable information remaining on your credit file, you should add a statement to your file that DISPUTES this information. Remember, the credit agencies MUST add such a statement, PROVIDING YOU REQUEST IT! If possible, you may resolve the problem with the creditor in question. If so, have the creditor contact the credit agency FOR YOU.
What Is 'Academic Writing'?
What exactly is "academic writing"?
In brief, academic writing is 'structured research' written by 'scholars' for other scholars (with all university writers being 'scholars' in this context). Academic writing addresses topic-based 'research questions' of interest to anyone who is seeking factually-based, objectively-presented information on a particular topic. The objective of academic writing is the presentation of 'new knowledge' via (a) a review of what is currently known about a given topic as (b) the foundation for the author's new views or perspectives on the topic.
In the case of literature and/or civilization, the topics would all be relevant to literary, cultural, historical, or political issues in British or American studies. With the topic, students must define one or more "research questions" concerning the chosen issue that the paper will address. The resulting paper will help readers understand the topic more fully, or in a new way, on the basis of how the author has treated the topic, in particular through the answer(s) given to the research question(s).
Academic Writing vs Simple Description; 'What is Known' vs 'What May Be Thought' or 'Questioned'
In academic writing, the author covers the selected topic from an authoritative point of view. The writing is 'thesis-driven', meaning that the starting point is a particular perspective, idea or 'thesis' on the chosen topic, e.g. establishing, proving or disproving 'answers' to the 'research questions' posed for the topic. In contrast, simply describing a topic without the questions does NOT qualify as "academic writing."
Defining a research question requires the student to first consult existing information on the topic. After this, questions may arise, such as: Is it really this way? How or why did it get that way? Is it always this way? Does 'everyone' see it this way? Do newer sources agree with older ones on the topic? Or, to take another line of inquiry? e.g.: What influence did X have on Y (or, of what significance was it to Y)? Why was the influence this great (or not greater)?
The foundation of the research paper is the documented review of what is currently known about the topic. On this foundation, the author constructs his/her perspective, e.g. how the topic may be understood more fully or differently from what is "currently known." The author's perspective may come from the use of (a) more extensive or (b) more up-to-date sources than had been available to previous scholars, or by (c) interpreting the details of these sources differently from how other scholars have done. Totally new information may also be created to 'test' or 'confirm' questions arising in the paper.
In short, academic papers distinguish between what is known about a topic (via the review of existing sources on the topic) with what new ideas may emerge or be thought or questioned about the topic, via the explication of the research question using the author's logically-developed, factually-based 'argumentation'. However, these new ideas will only be established as "fact" in their own right — thus joining the body of 'existing knowledge on the topic' — after the ideas have been published [in the paper] and subsequently validated by other 'scholars'.
Stylistic Conventions of Academic Writing
The basic stylistic conventions of the literature or civilization paper have to meet the MLA recommendations. The key points, which are common to any unambiguous formal writing for an international English-language audience, include:
1. Writing in the third person. Academic writing must be objective; the focus is not on the writer, but on the topic and ideas of the paper;
2. Avoiding abbreviations and slang, both of which may be highly culture-specific. The focus is clear, the formal-register language which will be unambiguous regardless of the variety of English used by the paper's international readership. Similarly, one should also write out numbers, currency designators, units of measurement, etc., in full.
An additional characteristic of academic writing is the use of relatively cautious or 'qualified' language, especially when documenting claims of new knowledge. Inasmuch as the evidence of the paper can only be based on what is currently known about the topic, this evidence may well change as new knowledge emerges (indeed, the "new knowledge" proposed by your paper will change what has been known about the topic before you wrote your paper. Thus, since the 'knowledge' will never be completely
certain, it is useful to express claims with language such as:
This report appears to show that . . .
But on page 357, X seems to feel differently . . .
In this context, Y apparently disagrees with X . . .
These two writers thus have views which differ from present textbooks on
Stages in the Writing of an Academic Paper
Common to all research papers is an elaboration of questions such as the following:
What do I know about my topic?
Can I answer the questions who, what, when, where, why, how?
What do I know about the context of my topic?
What historical or cultural influences do I know about that might be important to my topic?
Does my topic belong to any particular genre or category of topics?
What do I know about this genre?
What seems important to me about this topic?
If I were to summarize what I know about this topic, what points would I focus on?
What points seem less important?
Why do I think so?
How does this topic relate to other things that I know?
What do I know about the topic that might help my reader to understand it in new ways?
Sometimes it is useful to also reflect on the opposite perspective when thinking about how to address a particular topic:
What DON'T know about my topic?
What do I need to know?
How can I find out more?
What do I think, and why do I think that?
As you consider the questions listed above you will discover that you are moving beyond what you know about a topic and are beginning to consider what you think, and/or additional knowledge that could be thought. In the process of thinking about your topic, your aim is to come up with a fresh observation. It is not enough just to summarize in a paper what is already known. You must also add something of your own.
However, "adding something of your own" is not just bringing personal associations, reactions, or experiences into the text. To create an informed argument, your writing must be analytical rather than personal, with all associations, reactions, and experiences framed in an objectively critical manner.
Choosing An Appropriate Topic
Students often find it difficult to define an appropriate topic, even if they have an idea of the general subject they wish to write about. When considering possible topics, it may help to ask yourself the following questions:
1. Have you formed a research question for which there can be an informed and useful answer? Can it be answered adequately within the length and time requirements of the paper? Or is it too broad?
2. If the question seems broad, how might it be narrowed?
3. Does your question address social, historical, or other contexts relevant to your topic, as well as what other scholars (including past student papers) have said about it?
Types of Academic Writing
Which of these do you use?
2. Which are common to your academic department/discipline?
3. Do you define your assignment the same way as your colleagues; i.e., is one teacher’s research paper another teacher’s essay?
4. Which could you try as a new approach to a writing/research assignment?
5. Is there a category of academic writing not listed below?
a) Information writing assignment
b) ‘Extended’ assignment
c) Case study
e) Technical report
f) Lab report
g) Book report
h) Critical analysis/critique
j) Annotated bibliography
k) Literature review
l) Term paper
m) Research paper
n) Position/opinion paper
a. Definitional essay
q) Statistical summary
r) Senior thesis
s) Grant writing
u) Web writing
v)Oral presentation of the written report
w) PowerPoint presentation [yes, this is academic ‘writing’, too!]
x) Historical research [primary & secondary sources]
y) Midterm/final exam essay
z) Resume & other ‘business’ writing
aa)Experiential Learning-related project/assignment
bb)Service Learning-related project/assignment
cc)Independent study/Lifelong learning-related activity
Research comprises "creative work undertaken regularly Levy, P. (2011).
In this research proposal and assignment, will write a research proposal, also evaluate the educational opportunity and difficulties and analyse appropriate methods and theory to justify the complications.
Moreover, make appropriate decisions, and to critically, and apply different research methods that can provide realistic and applicable outcomes to develop and present persuasive reports on business issues making use of research evidence.
‘Something that people undertake in order to find things out in a systematic way, thereby increasing their knowledge’ Saunders et al. (2016)
The purpose of researching to help research by being Clear about what are doing, why are doing it and the associated implications of what is about to do and “there is no one best way for undertaking all research” Saunders et al. (2016)
(Low-cost employability, learning and development business models, In the education industry).
Many of today’s businesses operate in a continual state of crisis and have become burdened with non-essential and inefficient business processes. Business process modelling helps in identifying describing and understanding current business processes and enables investigation of alternative business practices. This project involves a survey of some of the popular methods and tools used for business process modelling and their comparison using a case study in training company. Bentham, J. (2011).
Why needs research and research definition
Research is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories
Research has defined in several various ways. Martyn Shuttleworth supports a broad definition of research - "In the broadest sense of the word, the definition of research includes any collecting of data, statistics and facts for the advancement of knowledge. “
according to Creswell, who states that -"Research is a process of tools utilised to gathers and analyse data to identified get knowledge of the subjects or challenges". Its direction of three steps: Pose a question to collect data to answer the question and present an answer to the question. C.R. Kothari, (2006).
other scholars (The Merriam-Webster) defines research in more detail as "a studious inquiry or examination; especially investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws". Formulating and clarifying the research topic is the starting point of the research project (Ghauri and Grønhaug, 2005; et al.).
The word research has derived from the Middle French “recerchier" a compound word from "re-" + "cerchier", or "sercher", McNeill, P. (2005).
"recherche", which means "to go about seeking", the term itself derived from the Old French term meaning 'search'. The earliest recorded use of the term was in 1577. Lodge, D. & Wood, N. (2008)
We can, therefore, define research as something that people undertake in order to find out elements in an organised way, thereby increasing their knowledge. Two phrases are essential in this definition: ‘systematic research’ and ‘to find out things.’
‘Systematic’ suggests that research based on logical relationships and not just beliefs (Ghauri and Grønhaug, 2005).
RESEARCH FOUNDATIONS (Logic and Reasoning)
Type of Research
On a broader perspective, most current researches can classify into two groups:
Qualitative research: is research dealing with phenomena that are difficult or impossible to quantify mathematically, such as beliefs, meanings, attributes, and symbols
Quantitative research: refers to the systematic empirical investigation of any phenomena via statistical, mathematical or computational techniques. The objective of quantitative research is to develop and employ mathematical models, theories and hypotheses about phenomena. C.R. Kothari, (2006).
However, there are other several types of researches also classified in social science researches namely fundamental social research, applied social research, quasi-social researches and so on, it all depends, what type of research conducted by the researchers. McNeill, P. (2005)
RESEARCH STEPS (The significant steps in conducting research are):
Researching organisation involves researching the organisation while being a complete system as permanent is a term increasing less applicable to today’s workplace.
Doing action research in the organisation is opportunistic described these as the core action research project and the thesis action research project (Zuber-skerritt and Perry 2002)
In this assignment, a case study is about” low-cost learning and development professional learning” in the UK those C.R. Kothari, (2006)
Quantitative research is generally associated with the positivist/postpositivist paradigm. It usually involves collecting and converting data into digital form so that statistical calculations could be, done, and conclusions have drawn. Silverman, D. (2001)
Qualitative research is the approach usually associated with the social constructivist paradigm, which emphasises the socially constructed nature of reality. It is about recording, Analysing and attempting to uncover the more profound meaning and significance of human behaviours and experience, including contradictory beliefs, behaviours and emotions. Researchers are interested in gaining a luxurious and sophisticated understanding of people’s experience and not in obtaining information which can be generalised to other larger groups. Cresswell, J.W. (2005).
The research processes (Stages of the research process)
Factors to consider
During this research process, I propose a mixed-methods approach combing quantitative research techniques to be able to get a rounded and complete picture. The researcher plans to collect secondary data from information available in the public domain. Additionally, the proposes to collect primary data gain a questionnaire and semi-structured inte5rviews conducted on a sample population obtained through snowball sampling. Cresswell, J.W. (2005).
Sample Research Proposal(don't copy just take as an example, it is already submitted on turn-ni-ti-in)
Research Proposal title. (Low-cost employability, learning and development business models, In the education industry).
The current trend that low-cost employability educational models (learning and developing) having an impact on the education industry. Provide traditional employability education learning to, practical expellable skills focus on real-world employable skills issue and make employable learning part of the new education systems. Donald R. Cooper et al. (2013).
This research aims to address full fill, employable skills educational models, fast track low- cost professional, practical learning and development in the current educational environment.
Somehow to this point, substantial concern tries to find the unique exceptionality concept curriculum employable activities training process. In this study, trying to find more ambitious and may introduce new education equally systems for subsystems to establish more productive and more affordable education systems with essential employable learning skills. Future education should be more collaborative, and Researcher will find future education affordable with the employable skills element.
To full fill the stated aim, this research will seek to achieve the following objectives.
It is widely, acknowledged in the current trend that low-cost education (employability, learning and developing) having an impact on the education and commerce industry they lead. Its impact on all educational institute effectiveness and learner achievement. Dennis A. Ahlburg (2018).
The impact of employability skills education has created huge changing in this industry, by the results of numerous international studies pointing to the fact that employability skills and low-cost facilities influence both learner achievement, performance and increase institutes effectiveness trend improvement (Ann Gravells 2014).
In the last decade, we have witnessed several changes, in technology, Govt policy changes have enhanced the space for competitions in employable skills learning and development in educational sectors, throughout the world. There is no dispute that this restructuring of the professional and academic sector, supported by educational institutions and governments. Jane Vella (2014).
Higher education is facing a strict set of challenges, highlights how institutions are responding to the rise of alternative-educational opportunities and the new academic and educational business models’ public organisations are working to address questions of affordability, diversity, and academic integrity. Clayton M. et al. (2011). That could alter the higher education landscape soon (Bruce and Johnstone. L et al. 2012).
The core challenge is to improve the quality of employable learning at all levels and make it with international standards. Many education systems have proved that may not work for all learners. Also make it difficult to adopt, discern a learner’s talents and aptitudes. Donald R. Cooper et al. (2013).
Over the last two decades or so, the whole learning and development world has experienced rapid changes and transformations in learning management systems (LMS). Today world lives in technology sanctuaries society, surrounded by new technology, mad thousands learning, education systems, which shocking the world of educations, that are also transforming the way we teach and do the transformation the way we learn. Education systems should be more flexibility, low -cost, generally standard schedules, for everyone curriculum worldwide.
Education Institution facing the rising education costs the learner test exams are not showing improvements to a comparable scale and remain the same with no employable skills and improve very little. To keep learner, engage industry to organize a wide range of student’s interests, learning styles, aptitudes and every institute incorporate various teaching methods and learner also have different learning styles. Which confuse learner to adopt which styles. Many of the changes suggested for higher education revolve around preparation to enter and remain in the workforce. Rena M. et al. (2007).
Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs)
Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) may no longer grab frontpage headlines the way they did a few years ago, but they have not disappeared. What is more important to this discussion about the future of higher, professional employable skills learning and development education is that their impact has been far different than initially predicted. Jim Gould (2012).
There is significant interest in this type of research and development from both organisation, academia and practice (Casadesus et al. 2013). This subject has researched various academic, internal, and external level from all concern including, educational institutes, and theoretical basis, but challenges and issues are still not entirely resolved and not thoroughly research (Akamavi, R 2015). Consequently, the learning and development sector lacks conceptual frameworks that reflect the organisation model transformation process in the service setting.
It is not clear which resources, research, plans, strategies have focused on the processes related to service innovation. Further to that, the involvement of the challenges into the services process needs further clarification (Akamavi, R 2015).
Relational for the research
The educational industry appears exciting, dynamic and forward-looking, operating at the frontiers of technological innovation. Few releases that despite its glamour, it is an industry whose long-term profitability is both marginal and very cyclical. The professional learning industry is inherently unstable because it is an industry which is continuously buffeted by new developments, constraints- regulatory, operational and technological and lack of accessible management structures (Saunders. N.K et al. 2016).
The research questions
Based on earlier studies, an in-depth longitudinal investigation is a consequent required for these multiple studies, in a qualitative study employing ethnographic research principles. The best way to collect primary data is through periodic personal interviews. However, there are several clear options also available (Saunders. N.K et all 2015). This research method may provide the most in-depth and broadest research data. However, the research result may profoundly influence by some unique factors of this interviewee company, limiting the scope for generalisation (Mullins et al., 2015, p53).
A multi-case study of two to three private educational institute in different teaching subjects. It will be possible then to compare the differences and similarities between the institute’s educational models, draw similar conclusions about practical, professional learning and development in the UK market, and generate more generalizable findings. Silverman, D. (2004).
This primary research aims to examine some of those questions that the extent to which they demand a reappraisal of earlier assumptions about academic and professional low-cost training demand.
Although secondary research focus will be on their issues and the interplay between them. Mixed methods research combines elements of quantitative and qualitative research approaches to obtain detailed information on the research problems (Saunders and Lewis et al. 2016)
This research proposal to report full fill, educational skills instructive representations, professional, real-world learning and progress in the existing educational situation.
To this point, important worry to discover the exceptional uniqueness thought prospectus educational happenings process. Forthcoming teaching would be additional, affordable with the soft and hard skills element. Donald R. Cooper, et al. (2013).
To full fill the stated aim, this research will seek to achieve the following objectives.
Challenges of the industry
Nevertheless, there is still a gap in demand for the new employable skills educational system, and our understanding of the development of the relationship between educational institutions and learners. (D. Randy Garrison 2002).
Several publications, reports have published that all provide an international comparative perspective on the changing academic professional and academic learning which carries essential research initiatives, addressing various aspects of changing professional learning. William Horton (2007).
Student debt has (in the UK) reached a startling record-high of one billion £ pounds (DfE). Cost-minded students and their families and the public at large are questioning the worth of having a college and university education without low employable skills (Bruce. D et al. 2012).
Demand mastery skills
Many of the changes suggested for higher education revolve around preparation to enter and remain in the workforce. Rena M. et al. (2007).
This focus on workforce education also is trickling down into other parts of the educational system.
Also involves clarifying the action research project in terms of systems commitment of learning in action and managing issues of role and access.
In 2010, the National Research Council NRC -USA released a report describing the broad skills students need to succeed when facing the future challenges of the workplace. Often described as “21st Century Skills,” these include a mix of cognitive, intrapersonal, and interpersonal attributes such as collaboration and teamwork, creativity and imagination, critical thinking, and problem-solving, Jane Vella (2014). Several Colleges and universities are already rethinking their undergraduate curriculum to make sure students learn these skills such as ‘The concept of T-shaped skills, or T-shaped persons.
Two main statistical methods used in data analysis: descriptive statistics, which summarise data from a sample using indexes such as the mean or standard deviation, and inferential statistics, which conclude data that are subject to random variation (e.g., observational errors, sampling variation). Ghauri and Grønhaug, et at (2010).
During this research process, I propose a mixed-methods approach combining quantitative and qualitative research techniques to be able to get a rounded ad complete picture. Moreover, collect secondary data from information available in the public domain Silverman, D. (2004).
The research project has a tight timescale as it has linked to a live project. A certain amount of time and resource needs to dedicate to creating mock-ups
The application of moral rules and professional codes of conduct to the collection, analysis,
reporting, and publication of information about research subjects, active acceptance
Of subjects' right to privacy, confidentiality, and informed consent.
The major ethical issues in conducting research are: a) Informed consent, b) Beneficence- Do not harm c) Respect for anonymity and confidentiality d) Respect for privacy.
The new development of low-cost learning business models is for learners in Britain. As I have explained, Educational authorities have failed and struggling to set out several vital reforms in the last two decades as required by the modern educational systems. (Bruce. D Johnstone et al. 2012).
The conclusion of this research present is to create a more effective (case study) low-cost employable skills fast track branding qualification to support the local employment and education industry with prominent levels of able low-cost educational systems.
It has confirmed that further development of practical professional low-cost employable skill education business models’ systems and raising lifelong participation learning will help to achieve these goals. Donald R. Cooper, et al. (2013),
Level of analysis are commonly used as frameworks for researching, understanding and intervening in organisational systems; typically, they refer to the identification of issues as units of complexity, such as the individual group, intergroup and organisation. They are an essential dimension of action research, as traditionally they are seen as targets for action research. This assignment has reviewed the traditional focus of levels of analysis as targets for action research and extends the notion to levels of aggregation or interlevel dynamics. Creswell, J. W. (2005).
In this assignment have outlined how the approach is making sense of complex organisation systems and have presented some essential themes concerning how might go about choosing a research framework on which would provide a basic understanding of organisational data. McNeill, P. (2005).
Functions of Management
Management: Theory, Practice, Application
What are the functions of management? This paper will define the four basic principles of management. They are planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. I work for FMC Technologies in Airport Services. FMC is a service provider for Continental Airlines. FMC provides facility maintenance in all areas of Bush Intercontinental Airport. I will explain how these functions relate to my company.
My company is a little insufficient in the planning department. Planning involves the development of the company’s objectives and determining how it will be accomplished. Improper planning can be detrimental to a company. FMC provides facility maintenance to the baggage handling systems for Continental Airlines in Houston Texas. Management at times skips the planning stage and moves right into organizing. The planning stage can be compared to the foundation of a house. If the foundation is weak, the quality of the house will be poor.
Proper planning includes meetings that include goals. The goals and missions are clearly defined and completion dates and schedules are created. We also identify any problems and try to figure out pre-emptive solutions by brainstorming. We also allocate the resources need to accomplish the goals set. We do this with labor meetings and capital plans, and forecasting. Everyone needs to agree and understand the plan for the goal to be successful.
Organization is another key step in the process of effective management. My company uses conference meetings to achieve this. Organizing is establishing the internal organization structure of the organization. At this stage we delegate tasks and objectives out per person or team. We also set completion dates and schedules. We meet weekly to measure progress on all objectives. This is also where the chain of command or hierarchy is clearly defined.
Even with a good foundation and stellar organization the plan cannot be executed without proper leadership. Leadership is a dynamic function with regard to dealing with people. Leaders need to have strong interpersonal skills. They must also be very influential and get the “buy-in” from counterparts and their subordinates. The leader is responsible for articulating the mission: (Spurgin, 2006 5).
We have an outstanding leader in our site manager. He truly leads by examples and is a stellar role model for the management staff. He has a talent for getting things accomplished through people and making efficient use of his resources. I believe that all great leadership starts at the top and rolls down through the ranks. Our company believes in leadership training. We send our “front line” supervisors to this training since they are in the field and are directly involved with the workers.
Controlling represents managing the day to day functions that were defined in the planning and organization stage. Our company has mid-level supervisors that disperse our intentions to the field workers. They are the bloodline between management and the employees. The supervisors ensure that the changes implemented by management are carried out and successful. This is also the area where people are monitored. Under controlling, the leader is responsible for establishing the monitoring systems beyond the reporting systems (Spurgin, 2006 8).
Our leader performs random checks on management’s objectives. Other than performance report monitoring, he also walks our respective areas and interviews our personnel. The last step in controlling is taking corrective action on processes that are failing. Our general manager will meet with us monthly to discuss any failures he has found in our area. We develop an action plan to correct any findings and discuss what can be done to prevent any opportunity for failures.
In conclusion, all these areas need to work effectively in order for the management team to be successful. Each of the above areas requires creative thinking and problem-solving. Although there may be processes in place, there will always be the "gray" areas that managers must solve. The team is defined as the sum of all parts working together to achieve a common goal. If one of the areas suffers, all suffer due to compensation of the weak link.
Spurgin, Ralph, (1993, October). Management in the 90s. Credit World, 82(1), 24. Retrieved July 9, 2007, from MasterFILE Premier
Defining the project scope is identifying all the work in details that the project will accomplish in order to achieve its final goal. The work includes the activities identified in the Log frame and the activities the project team has identified that will be necessary to support the project and all the other circumstances surrounding that delivery of the project. The scope is very important in the definition of project requirements at the start of the project life cycle and missing any part of the scope can cause unforeseen extra cost and variation to the project cost and even the final product, get something totally different than you would expect. Effective scope management is one of the key factors produce project success.
Scope, as been defined by BMBOK, is the processes required to ensure that the project includes all the required, and only the work required to complete the project successfully. It is primarily concerned with defining and controlling what is or is not included in the project. In other words, The project scope describes all the work to create the product. It includes all of the work, and only the required work, to complete the project deliverables. Therefore, it is true that the scope is the magnitude of the effort required to complete a project.
Scope statements for small project differ from the large project but similar in their essential components in a way that a project of toy aeroplane and new attack jet, they all have a project objective, scope of works, assumptions, constraints, exclusions, related project and risk management. However, both projects are different from each other completely in their details scope plane.
Project objectives in the toy aeroplane project are to develop and produce a simple toy which means very simple in its scope plan components, and the number of tasks. However, the new attack jet will have very complicated deliverables under a highly sophisticated technology. The scope management of the toy aeroplane is no more than view steps compare to the attack Jet which should have more than hundreds of tasks and subtasks. Each part of the attack Jet can be a project and a complex more than the toy aeroplane project. It is a project of multi-project managers.
Stakeholders are any person or organisation who can affect the projector is affected by the projector. Stakeholders for the Jetfighter are many, include the number of authorities, defence, Jet flight riders, client, finical department, R&D department, Weapon authorities, Aviation Authority, store and maintenance department, Contractors and project management. On the other hand, few stockholders are presented for the toy aeroplane such as the client, contractor, toy authorities, and management and a sample of users.
The need and expectation of stakeholders in the toy project are to produce a profitable toy good for children play, very easy and simple to manage. Conversely, Jet attacker where the expectation is much higher and expect even more advanced technology to use. Therefore, the expectation and needs of Jet attacker stakeholders are more complicated and required more efforts to produce.
The project assumptions which are the factors considered to be true, real or certain. And include a list of the conditions that are expected to exist for the project to be a success, that is accepted as true without proof or demonstration. In the toy plane project assumption are no more than a few simple assumptions such as the availability of materials and mould not developed or designed and other simple assumptions. However, in the attack Jet it the numerous number of assumption, even each part of the attack Jet has its own assumption. The assumption in each part goes even to very complicated technology availability and safety issues.
Constraints which are the issues restricting or controlling the way in which project is delivered and cannot be modified or removed by the project manager. Constraints for toy aeroplane are normal and simple in its way and can be handled, constraints such as, time or maybe budget and resources are all normal constraints for a project and can be overcome. Unlike, for the attack Jet which required more time, budget, resources and R&D efforts. In this case the constraint, are more complicated and may block the project in certain phases and might be close it.
Such a large project has many types of constraints, time, budget, technology, and resources. The constraint in this type of project is a complicated and long time to solve, the huge amount of budget and might be at some stage required a change of scope. The project manager should have the ability to overcome all constraints. This type of project also required top security during all the stage and tasks of the plane. This type of constraint required more time and efforts during project processes. All of these are highly affects the project progress and may delay the phases or delivery date.
Related project or project dependencies are either internal or external factors on
which the project is dependent, such as another project that will deliver services or goods that will be used by the project. In the toy project, the related projects are few and may not have. This is because the project is very simple and can be done In-house of the company factory. On the other hand, the attack Jet project is large and contains many related project. Because each part in the attack Jet is a project and may have many related project. Runway, airport, the fighter storehouse, and fuels supply are all related projects in addition, to the high technical parts of the fighter. Hence, the related project for the Jetfighter project numerous and required good planning, compared to the toy plane.
Risk management in a project is defined as threats to project success also, the opportunities to enhance the chances of project success. A small project such as toy aeroplane may have little or no risk as it is simple and scope of works contain few tasks. However, in Jet attacker, each part of it represent a risk. In such a project, the risk is very high and continue throughout the project process. The project manager in such case required to be more advanced to manage all technology involved and the experience to run the project smoothly and precisely.
In conclusion, Scope statements for toy aeroplane and new attack jet are all have similar main components; however, they are completely different in their details. A project objective, scope of works, stakeholders, assumptions, constraints, related project and risk management for the attack jet are more complicated, have many tasks and required more time to process. A project such as an attack jet is more sophisticated required more technology and a well-experienced project manager.
In the past, the world was parts of continents and continents parts of countries which represent their culture separately. In addition, the communication between different cultures and communities slightly difficult or need so much time. Nowadays, we could imagine something different from the past which we hear terms of new world features like a melting pot, globalization, culture, and global perspective.
Al-Balabki (1995:570) concludes that the melting pot is a place where immigrants of different ethnicities, cultures or countries come to live together with a variety of ideas and races. According to J. Jary (1991) that,” culture is defined as the unique ideas, customs, skills, arts, behaviour, appearances and communication of a group of people”. To quote Wikipedia (n.d), “globalization refers to increasing global connectivity, integration and interdependence in the economic, social, technological, cultural, political and ecological spheres”.
Moreover, there are many examples of a global culture which make all cultures around the world effective. However, I am going to write about the internet, English as a global language and business in this essay.
Internet is the largest sources of information these days. It can provide a wide variety of information which anyone needs it. The Internet revolution has made a huge change in many aspects of our lives. It becomes a method to know more and more about many different things.
It helps the whole world to be a small village. Now anyone could speak with another person in minutes or less than that. Moreover, you can communicate with people from different country, culture, lifestyle and geography. It is a really amazing system which enriches the global development in most fields. Consequently, more users from different countries and cultures every year use internet services to benefit from it as possible as they can. For example, as Miniwatts Marketing Group (2007) reports that North America has the biggest users of the internet which represent 70.2% of its population is using the internet. Next, where are the biggest users of the internet comes to Oceania/Australia which has 55.2%?
Then, Europe has 41.7%, Latin/ Caribbean 20.8%, the Middle East 17.3%, Asia 12.4%and Africa 4.7%. Moreover, these numbers show that are many users of the internet around the world. Whether we compare the population of the world which is 6,574,666,417 with the population of internet users are 1,244,449,601 so there are 18.9% who use the internet around the world.
Furthermore, these big numbers should not surprise anyone, because we notice the increasing of using the internet in our daily life. People are using the internet to get useful information for their studying, work, and to send e-mail to their friends, co-workers, classmates and so on. Also, they use it to buy things or to read the advertisement, to seek for a new job even. They use it to find a new opportunity for education or majors they want.
The wealth of the web site and its different uses make it difficult to limit the internet uses! However, the greatest thing is that the internet makes communication between people, government, countries, clubs, institutions, universities, cultures easier, faster and practical. That is the revolution of the internet which reflects positively in the global. For instance, reduce the difference between people, to use the internet you have to own a computer which can expensive for some people or nations, but that does not prevent them to use. Therefore, even poor communities tend to use the new technology of the internet to interact with the rest of the world and do not live the cultural loneliness.
Furthermore, during my personal experience I use the internet daily to check emails and for chatting my friends from USA, UK, Lebanon, Australia and even from Oman. In addition, as every student in college and university, I depend on the internet to search for different information for different academic purposes.
English is the international language and nobody can ignore this fact. In the past years, the English language becomes more popular and practical for people from different areas. There are many reasons which lead the English language to be the international language. Moreover, the fields and the places which English language available are countless. It is now the language of communication among countries.
According to yahoo (2007) says that,”the colonies of British Empire, in India and North America, Africa and South pacific were a great example which influenced people there to speak English. Furthermore, United States becomes very powerful after the second war and more people started to learn English”. It is notable that the international meetings, discussions, and events use English language.
Political and economical interviews between important people and countries use English to communicate between their different cultures. Yahoo (2007) states that, “the number of people who speak English as a second language is bigger than the number of native speakers of English language”. Related to this idea, Wikipedia (2007) shows a statistic about the number of people who use English as a second language from different areas. For example, there are 35,964,744 people who speaks English as a second language in United States, 65,000,000 person in India, 75,000,000 in Nigeria, 1,500,000 in United kingdom, 42,500,000 in Philippines and 36,000,000 in Germany. All these numbers represent how is English language a global one which has many speakers from different countries and it has an international speakers and uses. Also, the flexible style and easy structure of English language as opposed to other languages increased its speakers of it.
Antimoon (2006) claims that most the textbooks are written in English and even most of universities classes around the world are taught in English. English is the language of international business, research and science. The biggest number of websites on the internet is publishing with the English language. Journals, movies, advertisement and radio are a good example to represent the globalization of the English language. Thus, more people learn English every day to have a better chance in their life such as education, travel, job and entertainment.
In addition, I use English to speak with doctors from different countries in the hospital and clinic also, in shopping centres and cafés when there are staffs who can not speak Arabic. Also, I use it to deal with the employee in companies, travel agencies and embassies.
Business is one example of a global culture. Businesses, firms, companies and organizations are following the same business structure around the world. For more clarifying, SCHERMERHORN, Jr. (2004) believes that there are similar divisions in business classification like top management which include CEO, COO, GM to support middle management like a team leader, supervisor, the manager which they also support operating workers to serve customers. In addition, there are four function of management (planning, organizing, leading, and controlling) which each one depends on another to work insufficient and effective way to reach the goals.
As an organization is constructed to reach its productivity objectives to satisfy its customers. Business around the world can be local or international. International businesses still work and organize at the same system even they have a different location in different countries but business culture is one globally. In other words, if they are multicultural (multinational) or domestic business. Moreover, from the term of globalization which makes the world close enough and small. In these days, firms offer services around the world by installing many branches and agencies in different locations around the world. These branches share the same origin business culture which is connected to achieve the same objectives, mission and vision. According to aon.com (n.d), states that,
“this worldwide network of companies allows us to tap into the most innovative risk solutions, no a matter where they were created an industry expert in Europe can access a recently updated development in the United States and deliver a solution seamlessly to clients in Asia”.
Calle.(2000) suggests that, the key element of what we work and behave is that to mean ethics. The right details and information about the business is what customers are willing to hear from organization employers and employees. As the business one factor of globalization, business society and culture at any place of work determine top quality and highest ethical levels. Ethical standard during short time being ineffective but over time could develop and grows very quickly.
However, problems appear like crushing trust between employees, employers and leaders, and between different department of organization which reduce organization performance and bad behaviors appears between employees, all these because of few of organization staffs have knowledge in ethics. Ethics can not munching very well with political values or thoughts of society, because ethics are individual issue that need people to be trustful and has very good behaviors. As a result, ethical main points have been unused. According to Calle(2000) says, "international survey found that 78% of boards of directors are setting ethical codes of conduct, up from only 41% in 1991".In addition, that mean managers, leaders or supervisors are concerning the importance of business ethics. In these days, organization which managed by a high level of management, are rapidly working with ethical behaviors.
These organizations depend on the time and money to draw a bright picture on ethical behavior which shows the right standard for business global culture.
Moreover, as a personal example of my experience, I used business ethics and management structure during last summer training at Luban company and at my part-time job in Birkat Almouz store. However, business ethics and management structure dive me the real experience to deal with managers or customers to reach work performance and customer satisfaction in any work around the world.
In conclusion, globalization has its effects in different fields business, internet, and English language in the whole world. They are important examples which have influential causes and reasons. In my opinion, sometimes they are being positive and sometimes being negative. For instance, some examples of global culture being useful just for the first world countries and in the same case being harmful to third world countries.
However, globalization solves so many points like wasting time, make the distances between different counties are too small and easier. As a result, every country should modify each globalization example to be fitness.
Business ethical behaviour
Nowadays the debate about the businesses’ ethical behaviour through the decision-making process has been increased due to the fact of the collapse of famous companies after the disclosure of financial scandals related to them. The legal responsibility has been focused on specific categories of professionals like accountants, auditors and managers as they are supposed to work with the appropriate way to avoid such circumstances. The purpose of this article is to review two academic journals which try to present situations where managers and accountants were led to an illegal behaviour like fraud financial statements, to analyze some ethical theories and explore what would have happened if they had been aware of some ethical codes.
Reinstein, Moehrle and Reynolds-Moehrle (2006) argued that any illegal and unethical behaviour in the financial field is caused by a general moral problem inside human society. They used nine cases of financial collapses to present specific actions and their disastrous results for all the participants. After they tried to connect Kohlberg’s ethical theory and some religion believes with accountants’ practices. They supported that the best way to be achieved an ethical behaviour in this professional field is a combination of a personal ethic system for every employee and the right organizational ethical system. On the other hand Barlaup, Drønen and Stuart (2009) in their article mentioned the importance of regaining trust and confidence in the financial markets after the explosion of financial scandals. This can be succeeded by encouraging ethical principles inside financial organizations. They introduced the concept of normative ethics as a tool for managers and accountants during their decision-making process. By examining the Adelphia fraud the authors tried to suit owners’ and auditors’ behaviour with any level of their proposed ethical theory.
Reinstein et al (2006) apply Kohlberg’s theory (1969, 1976, 1981, 1984) of moral development to clarify ethical breakdowns in business. According to this theory, “every individual passes through six stages of moral reasoning ranging from adhering to rules because of fear of punishment to adhering to rules due to concern with ethical principles and respect for the dignity of humans ”( Reinstein, Moehrle and Reynolds-Moehrle, 2006:426).
There are three main levels of development. Firstly the pre-conventional level where an individual acts in order to fulfil egoistic and self- interest objectives. Secondly, the conventional level which is related with the theory of utilitarianism where the main purpose of an individual is to satisfy society’s welfare and lastly the post-conventional level where there is a focus on inner self rather than particular societal rules(Reinstain et al, 2006). Barlaup et al (2009) have a similar approach as they present the theory of normative ethics as a tool for businesses and financial markets to regain the public trust and confidence. In accordance with normative ethics, there are three different theories: egoism where right is regarded whatever benefits the individual, utilitarianism where an individual seeks for what is best for society and deontology where everyone must be internally motivated about the right and fair action regardless of the consequences.
Barlaup et al (2009) argue that markets and organizations have to put emphasis on ethical discernment and ethical behaviour by highlighting values like honesty, charity and compassion in order to succeed a framework of common morality. They recognize the fact that companies prefer profits than any ethical behaviour but the long term benefits will be considered if they apply ethical conduct as investors prefer cooperation with trustworthy partners. Therefore organizations must educate their employees about the importance of obtaining ethical behaviour and develop explicit ethical guides. Moreover, they underline the basic ethical standards for the profession of accountants.
These rules are defined by the International Ethics Standards Board and include the principles of professional behaviour, integrity, objectivity, professional competence and due care and confidentiality. On the other hand, Reinstein et al (2006:428) state that there is no clear evidence if ethical training inside the organizations improves ethical behaviour and decision-making. However, they agree that the organizational culture has a big impact on an individual’s behaviour especially when the individuals are characterized by high-self- monitoring status. Additionally, Reinstein et al (2006) mention that there is a positive relationship between moral reasoning and the individual’s age and education. Thus anyone has better chances to achieve a higher level of moral development according to Kohlberg’s theory when this correlation is positive.
Furthermore, Reinstein et al (2006) present nine cases of unethical behaviour in the financial market (Enron, WorldCom, Parmalat, Adelphia Communications etc). They argue that management and auditors choose to hide illegal activities inside the organizations and present false financial statements without taking into consideration the enormous consequences for their actions. They realized after the disclosure of their activities and their punishment that the cost for their reputation, family, professional career was much bigger than the potential profit. So Reinsteil et al focus on the subject of the potential consequences as the key point for prevention from unethical and unprofessional behaviours. On the other hand Barlaup et al (2009) make a brief presentation of Boynton and Johnson’s (2006) ethical decision-making framework which is concluded by six steps: obtain the relevant facts, identify the ethical issues ,determine who will be affected, identify the alternatives, identify the consequences of each alternative and finally make the ethical choice.
Next, they quote the case of Adelphia fraud. They focus only on this company to make clearer for the readers the subject of the ethical framework inside the organizations. They follow step by step every illegal activity and try to examine alternative actions if the participants (owners and auditors) were aware of the proposed ethical framework. As a result, the reader of this article can focus on the practical aspect of the ethical theories inside the organizations.
In conclusion, the above ethical theories can be used by managers and auditors as a useful tool in the decision-making process in order to avoid future financial scandals. These theories might not be an answer to all the ethical dilemmas that professionals face, but an ethical development in this field is required so that trust and confidence in the financial markets can be reinstated.
The positive and negative effects of tourism on the social-cultural environment of a country. over 300,000 viewed in Linkedin.
" The positive and negative effects of tourism on the social-cultural environment of a country."
How does Tourism Industry impact a country? The positive and negative effects (impact) of the Tourism industry has classified into the social & cultural impact, economic impact and environmental impact.
Social & cultural impact signifies the impact which it creates in terms of social changes in the lives of local people, improvements in infrastructure, lifestyle changes so on.
The economic impact could have quantified in terms of monetary benefits and overall economic development of the society. Environmental impact refers to the impact on nature and the surrounding areas.
Social and Cultural Effects impact.
Tourism may have different effects on the social and cultural aspects of life in a particular region depending on the strengths of the region. The effect can be positive or negative.
To boost huge tourism money is invested in preserving the local heritage, in improving infrastructure, in providing better local facilities which in turn creates better education, better leisure facilities, organizing frequent social events and thus a better lifestyle for the local people. They interact with the tourists, mix with people from diverse backgrounds, which creates a cosmopolitan culture in the region. Due to the demand for better services, varied employment opportunities have created within the region, and therefore, people do not feel the need to migrate to other cities to earn their living.
Due to the heavy traffic in the region, the infrastructure may not be able to cope up the increased rush thus leading to overcrowding, poor sanitation which may further lead to diseases bot to the tourists as well as local people. The intrusion of outsiders in the area may disturb the local culture and create unrest among the people. The local people may copy the lifestyles of tourists through the demonstration effect, and the result could be the loss of native customs and traditions. Some people may enter into criminal activities to fetch easy money from tourists, which leads to increased crime and anti-social activities and loss of moral and religious values.
Now let us understand the impact of the travel industry on the world and country economics.-
The environment is surrounding atmosphere or condition for existence. The impact of tourism on the environment is both positive and negative.
In order to attract more tourism, particular emphasis has given on overall beautification of the surroundings, regular planting of trees and landscaping are done to enhance aesthetics. Massive investment is made to improve the facilities in the area like sitting areas, shades, proper sanitation, drinking water so on. More emphasis is given to preserve the monuments, heritage structures to attract more tourists.
Any development requires some interference with nature. Overdevelopment comes at the cost of nature. There may be damage to the natural flora and fauna. Local people have displaced for want of coastal area development. With more people in the area, more natural resources may require, which leads to the depletion of natural resources. Waste disposal problems crop up, and without proper measures to handle this problem, it may worsen the situation. Due to more footfall, more transport, more noise, improper waste disposal, pollution increases in the area and disturbs the ecological balance of the region.-
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The tourism industry has contributed to the economic growth of a country through factors like industrialization, education, advanced technology, higher number of qualified professionals, opening up of foreign markets, liberal trade policies and better advertising and strategic marketing.
The above factors collectively boost the economic reserves of the region, thus leading to a rise in income and better disposable income. Tourism can also benefit economies at regional and local levels, as money comes into urban and rural areas, which in turn stimulates new business enterprises, higher markets and promotes a more positive image of the area. The income generated helps the national balance of payments, earning revenue through direct taxation, as well as from indirect taxes on goods and services purchased by the tourists.
Whereas the virtues of international tourism have been extolled as a significant force for peace and understanding between nations, the reality is often far removed from his perfect image. Long-haul travel between developed and developing countries is increasing annually and is bringing them into direct contact with each other. People come from widely different background and with every contrasting lifestyles and level of income. Where these disparities are very high, the political, as well as the socio-cultural consequences, may be severe.
What are the positive and negative impacts of tourism?
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Positive and negative economic impacts of tourism. Tourism provides the economic stimulus to allow for diversification of employment and income potential and develop resources within the community. Improvements in infrastructure and services can benefit both locals and tourists.
What are the positive environmental impacts of tourism?
It can put enormous pressure on an area and lead to impacts such as soil erosion, increased pollution, discharges into the sea, natural habitat loss increased pressure on endangered species and heightened vulnerability to forest fires.
What are the positive and negative socio-cultural impacts of tourism?
NEGATIVE SOCIO-CULTURAL IMPACTS OF TOURISM Irritation due to tourist behaviour. Tourists often, out of ignorance or carelessness, fail to respect local customs and moral values. Factors Related to Individual Perceptions of Tourism § Residents who are likely to benefit from tourism are more likely to support tourism
What are the positive effects of tourism on the economy?
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Although the economic impacts of tourism development are usually held to balance tourism economic benefits, however, negative economic impacts are also apparent and significant which cannot be ignored, particularly, a likely increase in demand for imported goods once tourists begin to appear, revenue leakages out
What are the negative impacts of tourism?
Other bad stuff. Tourism puts enormous stress on local land use and can lead to soil erosion, increased pollution, natural habitat loss, and more pressure on endangered species. These effects can gradually destroy the environmental resources on which tourism itself depends.
What is the cultural impact of tourism?
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The social and cultural impacts of tourism can result in changes to patterns of behaviour, lifestyle and the quality of life of the inhabitants or local people. Tourism, like all business ventures, can have an impact on communities and may be positive or negative, and sometimes both.
What is the environmental impact of tourism?
It involves many activities that can have adverse environmental effects. Many of these impacts are linked with the construction of general infrastructures such as roads and airports, and of tourism facilities, including resorts, hotels, restaurants, shops, golf courses and marinas.
How does tourism benefit the environment?
Improved environmental management and planning. Sound environmental management of tourism facilities and especially hotels can increase the benefits to natural areas. ... Cleaner production techniques can be important tools for planning and operating tourism facilities in a way that minimizes their environmental impacts.
What is the socio-cultural impact of tourism?
The socio-cultural impacts of conventional tourism described here, are the effects on host communities of direct and indirect relations with tourists and of interaction with the tourism industry. The impacts arise when tourism brings about changes in value systems and behaviour, thereby threatening indigenous identity.
How can the negative effects of tourism on the economy be reduced?
How to reduce the negative impact of tourism? Despite, the importance of tourism from its positive impact is always on the economic aspect. On the other hand, there is also greater concerns on the negative impact of tourism. Negative impacts can be reduced or avoided by effective use and implementation
What are the disadvantages of tourism?
The Disadvantages of Tourism. Environmental. Tourism can often cause environmental damage with risks like erosion, pollution, the loss of natural habitats, and forest fires. Reefs and other natural tourist attractions can suffer permanent damage
How does tourism impact the economy?
Tourists contribute to sales, profits, jobs, tax revenues, and income in an area. Through secondary effects, tourism affects most sectors of the economy. Economic impact analysis of tourism activity normally focuses on changes in sales, income, and employment in a region resulting from tourism activity.
Strategies that can be used to minimise the negative environmental impacts of tourism whilst maximising the positive impacts, what you can do to help:
As for the simple problem of people disrespecting the local land and destroying the fragile environment, just make sure that you read the signs, don’t cross the barriers, don’t “do it for the gram”, and just be a respectful human! That’s an easy one.
Before you visit your destination, research what the current environmental crisis is and do your very best to avoid contributing to it. For example, Maldives’ land is constantly being destroyed for various reasons, so when you visit, it’s wise not to contribute to any further degradation and to avoid all palm oil all together (and in your life back home too).
Growth, on its own, is not enough. Destinations and their stakeholders are responsible for ensuring that growth is well-managed; that benefits are maximized; and that any negative externalities are minimized. This requires a continuous process of planning and management that evolves and that can be measured over time
In Latin America, the attractive Amazon rainforest is constantly being destroyed, so avoid eating meat where you can, and try to stay in a hotel that condemns these actions… You could even pay a visit to the organizations that help to stop the destruction, or even donate some money.
It really is tough to avoid the overall destruction, especially considering travel isn’t overly kind to the planet, but by simply supporting the local businesses and organisations, obeying the signs, and staying off the beaten track a bit, that will do a whole world of good.
The following strategies can be used to minimize the negative impacts on the environment (tourism) while simultaneously increasing the positive impacts: Ensuring product and service diversification will increase the number of activities that tourists can engage in when they visit.
To begin, always look for locally owned hotels that are environmentally conscious! Support the accommodations that are sustainable, eco-friendly, and who care for the environment rather than contributing to the destruction.
Tourism can be great in that it can educate the wider world about a particular area, such as the Arctic or the Amazon rainforest. Tourism can bring money into an area and give the people who live there an incentive to protect a natural treasure or a priceless artefact which they may otherwise be tempted to destroy in the name of progress.
Each of the tasks has slightly different challenges and will, therefore, be trialling and piloting different aspects of the project. One thing that I really like about this subject is that it is not only focused on the tourist. The tourist is at the end of the supply chain, but there are a lot of pieces that come in before that, but focusing on the behaviour of local citizens and the businesses that supply the tourism industry they are taking a more holistic approach – this should stand them in good stead and allow them to learn a lot from the different projects. Islands have a lot to lose or gain by adopting greener and smarter mobility strategies.
If they do nothing and destroy their local environment then it is likely that tourist numbers will fall, but if they take the lead and make big changes then they will protecting the environment, this should have a positive impact on tourist numbers and deliver growth to the local economy.
Understanding Yourself – Identify your Learning Style
Knowing your preferred learning, personality and management styles will ensure you understand the way you work and appreciate why they’re effective for you.
Read below and identify your Learning Style
Theorist: Theorists learn by questioning, exploring and probing the logic behind assumptions and concepts. They appreciate being intellectually challenged and like to take the time to analyse disparate facts and synthesise them into coherent theories. They take a logical, rational approach, and tend to be detached and objective.
Activist: Activists enjoy being the centre of attention, and throw themselves into practical, hands-on activities with great enthusiasm. They are enthusiastic and relish new experiences and opportunities for learning. However, as soon as one activity is finished, they want to rush into the next without taking the time to reflect on what they have done.
Pragmatist: Pragmatists need to see the link between their learning and its practical application, and they like to experiment with ideas to see if they work in practice. They like to get on with things and dislike beating about the bush.
Reflector: Reflectors learn best when they are able to sit back and observe from various perspectives before reaching any conclusions. They are cautious in their approach and like to take the time to thoroughly absorb, analyse and digest what they have learned before putting it into practice. They appreciate the time to formulate their opinions and review their learning without the pressure of deadlines
Understanding Yourself – Identify your personality
Your personality is made up of your character and behaviours. It, therefore, informs how you approach tasks and react to situations.
What is your personality? Look below and identify
Realist: a loyal and steady worker, who meets deadlines, believes in established rules and respects facts.
Idealist: makes sense of events using inner values, focuses on personal growth and the growth of others
Innovator: energetic and creative, takes inspiration from various sources, enjoys a flexible work environment with few rules but allows opportunities for fun.
Leader: natural managers, who strive for efficiency, see the bigger picture and make clear plans for the future.
Strategist: intellectually curious, uses objective thinking and forward planning to find original solutions to problems.
Understanding Yourself – Identify your Management Style
What is your management style in your organisation?
Look below and identify
Telling – A manager decides without consulting other
Selling - A manager decides what action to take and then tries to sell other their idea
Consulting – A manager discusses a situation with other team members to listen to them and then take action
Joining – A manager outline the situation and then jointly make the decision with his/her team.
What does Oskar stand for?
The OSKAR Coaching Framework is a popular coaching model that allows you to focus on solutions to problems rather than on the problems themselves. It stands for Outcome, Scale, Know-how, Affirm + Action, and Review
How to Structure A Coaching Session?
What is the Oscar model?
The OSCAR model is a useful coaching and mentoring tool designed by Karen Whittle worth and Andrew Gilbert to provide a flexible developmental framework for individuals in managerial positions to develop the skills and knowledge of their team.
The OSCAR Coaching Model is a popular tool in workplace coaching. Its name is also an acronym, which stands for Outcome, Situation, Choices, Actions, and Review. It was formulated in 2002 by British coaches and trainers Andrew Gilbert and Karen Whittle worth.
The OSKAR Coaching Framework
Getting Results by Focusing on Solutions
The OSKAR Coaching Framework - Getting Results by Focusing on Solutions
Bridge the gap between problems and solutions with the OSKAR coaching framework.
Carl has a problem with one of his team members, Eloise. Eloise works hard but can communicate in an offhand way. Carl's concerned about the impact this could be having on clients.
Carl calls Eloise in for a meeting, where he outlines the communication approaches that he prefers to see from team members. He asks her to rate how she feels she's meeting these objectives, and why this might be. It becomes clear that Eloise is shy and often feels nervous about speaking to people. The result is that, without realizing it, she's coming across as curt and abrupt.
Together, they work to identify practical actions that they can both take to improve Eloise's communication skills. In doing this, Carl has taken a solution-focused coaching approach known as the OSKAR coaching framework.
In this article, we'll examine what the OSKAR coaching framework is, how it works, and how you can use it to improve how you manage your team. We'll explain its pros and cons and explore how you can use it to address problems your team members may be facing effectively.
For a richer understanding of the many ways, you can use coaching to improve how you manage, check out our other articles and resources in this area. These include everything from explaining what coaching is through to other coaching frameworks, such as POSITIVE, PRACTICE and GROW.
How to Use the OSKAR Coaching Framework
The OSKAR coaching framework is one of the most popular solutions-focused coaching models used by organizations. It was developed by coaches Mark McKergow and Paul Z. Jackson and published in their 2002 book, "The Solutions Focus: Making Coaching and Change SIMPLE."
It's a coaching framework you can use within your team or organization, to help you focus on a problem's solution, rather than on the problem itself. You can use it to address specific performance or behavioural problems within your team, such as the one highlighted at the start of this article.
OSKAR stands for Outcome, Scale, Know-how, Affirm + Action, and Review. Here are some practical suggestions for making each of those stages work for you.
This can also be Objective. This is what you and your team member want to achieve from the meeting or coaching session – resolving the specific problem or issue.
Take a look at the desired Outcome in our example. Carl wants Eloise to speak to clients more appropriately. Eloise wants to feel confident enough to do so. So they both have a shared Outcome.
This is where you measure or quantify how close your team member is to achieving the desired Outcome, using a scale (often of one to 10.) Bear in mind that he or she might rate himself at 10 immediately, so be prepared to be honest about how you rate him too.
Carl asks Eloise to rate herself against the organization's expected level of communication. Eloise gives herself a two. She explains that she's afraid of saying the wrong thing, and so tries to keep conversations as brief as possible.
Once you have an idea of where your team member is in relation to where she needs to be, the next step is to look at what she needs to get there. The "know-how" is the skills, knowledge, qualifications, and attributes that enable her to move forward. Use your scale to decide how far a particular solution will get her closer to your outcome, and what know-how she'll then need to progress even further.
Carl and Eloise agree that the skills she needs, to bring her performance in line with the company's expectations, are communication, conversation, listening, and self-confidence.
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Affirm + Action
This is where the pair of you focus on what's already working well or is already positive about his actions, skills, behaviours, and attributes. You then need to focus on the actions he needs to take to progress and to solve the problem you've identified.
Say your team member is already achieving five on your 0-10 scale. That's great. One question you can ask here is, "What actions are you already taking to achieve this score?" If he's already achieving well, what actions could he be taking to do even better? Will it simply be a case of him doing more of the same, or perhaps doing something differently? Your focus throughout the session should be on what next steps, however small, are going to work best, and what help you or your organization can offer him.
Eloise is achieving a low score on the scale. She and Carl focus on the steps that she needs to take to develop the skills they've identified. This includes Carl organizing relevant training sessions for her.
As the name suggests, this is the review process, and it normally happens at the start of each coaching session. This is where you both review the action your team member has taken, decide what's improved, and look at what needs to happen next to improve even further.
This process should emphasize the positives or successful outcomes, even if there's still a way to go to achieving the final goal. Ask your team member what changes she felt were successful and offer suggestions about what to change next.
Carl and Eloise are pleased with her progress as a result of the training sessions. He suggests ongoing mentoring support to develop her communication skills even further.
From "The Solutions Focus: Making Coaching and Change SIMPLE" by Paul Z. Jackson and Mark McKergow. Published by Nicholas Brealey International, 2002. See the Solutions Focus for more information. Reproduced with permission.
Benefits and Weaknesses of OSKAR
A key benefit of using the OSKAR model is its collaborative approach. This involves discovering what your team member wants, or feels is achievable, as well as ensuring that you get the outcome you want.
Another plus point is OSKAR's emphasis on progress and positive achievement. This can be much more motivating than simply highlighting a problem that needs resolving. Focusing on success and moving forward can empower the people you're coaching – higher morale can encourage better working relationships, and greater confidence can inspire creativity.
OSKAR focuses on small achievements and steps. This means that it can be helpful in a tough team or organizational situations, where you need to encourage someone to achieve larger goals, one step at a time, while not "taking his eye off the ball."
Another benefit is that OSKAR can be used as a set of tools rather than a single process – you don't need to use all the elements every time. You might, for example, want to focus on Outcome, Know-how and Affirm and, in the short term at least, leave it at that. This means that OSKAR can be especially useful for busy managers looking to engage in short yet effective coaching conversations.
But there is the potential to focus too much on the Affirm element, instead of the solutions that need to be achieved. If you use this element alone, you run the risk of focusing on positive aspects of your team member's performance and behaviour, and not addressing the negative ones.
Another potential difficulty with the OSKAR model is maintaining a balance of dialogue between you and your team member. Although the model encourages a collaborative approach, it's important to be clear throughout the process of the Outcome that you wish to achieve. If your Outcome is not clear, your team member could lose focus and forget the original purpose of the exercise.
The OSKAR Coaching Framework is a popular coaching model that allows you to focus on solutions to problems rather than on the problems themselves. It stands for Outcome, Scale, Know-how, Affirm + Action, and Review.
Its emphasis on positive achievement and progress helps you to have a much more motivational, consensual and collaborative coaching conversation with your team member than you would if you were focused on "fixing" problems.
However, there's a risk that, by focusing too much on the Affirm element, you could avoid having difficult but necessary conversations about poor performance or behaviour.
Apply This to Your Life
Use the model to step back and look at your career or life progress. What's your outcome? If you measured this on a scale, where would you be? What know-how are you missing?
Use the model to encourage yourself to strive for your goals. The Affirm element allows you to revisit and reaffirm your achievements and successes, and to recognize where you have done things well. From there, you can look at the steps you need to take to build on them and pave the way for your future success.
The OSCAR model is a useful coaching and mentoring tool designed by Karen Whittle worth and Andrew Gilbert to provide a flexible developmental framework for individuals in managerial positions to develop the skills and knowledge of their team. It builds upon the original, and still popular GROW Model of coaching which arose during the 1990s.
The OSCAR coaching model was originally described by Karen Whittle worth and Andrew Gilbert in 2002. The aim of the authors was to develop a model that built upon and enhanced the existing GROW model (1990s), with the intention to provide those in managerial positions with the ability to adopt a developmental coaching style, to the benefit of their company and team.
The model is built around five contributing factors or sections:
The model operates under the notion that if these factors are satisfied, understood and applied by the coach then the long-term result of their interaction with the employee will be achieving the ‘outcome’, whereby demonstrating effective coaching.
The OSCAR model can be applied in almost any personal development scenario; however, it is argued that it is most effective when used when working towards long term ‘outcomes,’ as the framework provides the impetus for the implementation of attainable milestones through the ‘actions’ aspect. For example, an employee may approach the coach for advice on becoming a stronger team leader when taking part in team-based tasks.
Firstly, the coach and the employee should discuss the issue at hand (the primary topic of the meeting) and work together to identify the desired outcome of the session, and the long-term goals of the individual. In the case of the example above, this would likely be to develop the ability to take charge and be heard in team-based scenarios. In a less specific scenario, here are a few sample questions that the manager or coach may ask the individual to encourage discussion:
The second step would be to ascertain the current skill/ability/knowledge level of the team member and encourage discussion as to why they are at that level. The aim of questioning and discussion here is to raise the mentee’s understanding and awareness of their own situation. Also discussed during this section of the process are the feelings of the individual, and how they feel their current situation is impacting their lives and those of their peers.
Choices (and Consequences)
Following this, the coach will help the team member to identify all the potential avenues for attaining the ‘outcome’. For example, perhaps undertaking a training course of some sort. For all the brainstormed choices discussed, the consequences and ramifications of each will be considered, allowing the individual to discard less-practical or excessively difficult avenues and work towards a single viable route to their long-term goals.
The next step is to identify where improvements can be made and how to make them. The focus of actions is the immediate and attainable targets that the mentee can work towards. SMART (specific, measurable, accurate, realistic and timely) can serve as a checklist for any of the actions designed during this period of the session. All actions should be motivational enough that the individual will strive and work towards them, but not so far from their current situation that they will find the task impossible and therefore lose motivation. All actions should have distinct – though realistic – deadlines so that the individual is motivated to work and has points at which they can measure progress. An example of action could be signing up for a training course or identifying a course that would most suit the team member. In addition to this, any support that may be required during the process should be identified.
Finally, in the review stage the coach and coaches will arrange to hold regular meetings to ensure that the team member is on track and to offer any assistance, should it be required. These meetings and review checkpoints can be based upon the deadlines for tasks set in the action section of the process. If it is found that the individual is no longer on track for sections of their action plan, perhaps the long-term and short-term goals should be re-assessed using the OSCAR process once more.
How is it useful?
The OSCAR model is useful for coaches that choose to adopt less autocratic approaches to leading and coaching, as it allows them to provide support whilst giving the employee space to take charge of their own action plan. By integrating the model, the coach or manager can regularly check that their team member is on track and working towards achieving their goals, whilst providing a safety net should the team member become overwhelmed or unable to complete certain tasks.
As a result, the primary use of OSCAR is to encourage employee development over both the short and long-term. It is particularly useful for coaches that do not have large amounts of time to personally supervise and guide each employee to their outcome, as it allows the coach to provide support whilst encouraging the employee to take the lead on their own development.
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